SYNTAX STUDIES IN HISTORICAL LINGUISTICS: WORD ORDER IN ENGLISH AND GERMAN AS INDO-GERMANIC LANGUAGES

Ana Purwitasari

Abstract


This research aims to describe the development of syntax in English and German diachronically and involves a broader inquiry into English and German as sister languages rooted from Germanic language. In this research, the author gathered data from manuscripts written in both the English and German languages produced at particular times. This research used descriptive-qualitative method. The results showed that: 1) Diachronically, English and German have gone through four periods in their syntax patterns development; 2) Old English and Old High German sentence patterns are apparently the same, adopting SVO-structure; 3) The existence of conjunction separates the verb and object in German, but it does not change anything in the English word-order, from Middle English to Modern English; 3) Early Modern English verbs should be put in the second position. However, Early New High German verb is placed in agreement with the conjunction since conjunction influences the position of the verb and object.

Keywords: Syntax; Germanic languages; historical linguistics; Indo-Germanic languages

Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan perkembangan sintaksis dalam bahasa Inggris dan bahasa Jerman secara diakronik dan merupakan penelitian yang diperluas terkait bahasa Inggris dan bahasa Jerman sebagai rumpunbahasa yang berasal dari bahasa Jermanik. Dalam penelitian ini, penulis mengumpulkan data dari manuskrip yang ditulis dalam keduabahasa tersebut, bahasa Inggris danJerman,pada waktu tertentu. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode deskriptif kualitatif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa: 1) Secara diakronik, bahasaInggris dan Jerman telah melalui empat periode dalam pengembangan pola sintaksisnya; 2) Pola kalimat bahasaInggris lama dan Jerman lama tampaknya sama, yaitu memilikistruktur SVO; 3) Adanya konjungsi yang memisahkan kata kerja dan benda dalam bahasa Jerman, tidak mengubah apapun dalam ketentuankata perintah padabahasa InggrisdaribahasaInggrisAbad Pertengahan ke bahasa Inggris Modern; 3) Kata kerja bahasa Inggris di awalmasabahasaInggrisModern harus diletakkan di posisi kedua. Namundemikian, kata kerja bahasaJermanditempatkan bersama konjungsi sejakkonjungsimempengaruhi posisi kata kerja dan objek.

Kata kunci: Sintaksis; bahasa Jerman; linguistik historis; bahasa Indo-Jerman

Kata kunci: Sintaksis; bahasa Jerman; linguistik historis; bahasa Indo-Jerman


Keywords


Syntax; Germanic languages; historical linguistics; Indo-Germanic languages

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References


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17509/bs_jpbsp.v17i2.9653

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