SYNTAX STUDIES IN HISTORICAL LINGUISTICS: WORD ORDER IN ENGLISH AND GERMAN AS INDO-GERMANIC LANGUAGES

Ana Purwitasari

Abstract


This research aims to describe the development of syntax in English and German diachronically and involves a broader inquiry into English and German as sister languages rooted from Germanic language. In this research, the author gathered data from manuscripts written in both the English and German languages produced at particular times. This research used descriptive-qualitative method. The results showed that: 1) Diachronically, English and German have gone through four periods in their syntax patterns development; 2) Old English and Old High German sentence patterns are apparently the same, adopting SVO-structure; 3) The existence of conjunction separates the verb and object in German, but it does not change anything in the English word-order, from Middle English to Modern English; 3) Early Modern English verbs should be put in the second position. However, Early New High German verb is placed in agreement with the conjunction since conjunction influences the position of the verb and object.

Keywords: Syntax; Germanic languages; historical linguistics; Indo-Germanic languages

Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan perkembangan sintaks dalam bahasa Inggris dan bahasa Jerman secara diakronik dan merupakan penelitian yang diperluas tentang bahasa Inggris dan bahasa Jerman sebagai bahasa saudara yang diwarisi dari bahasa Jermanik. Untuk melakukan penelitian ini, penulis mengumpulkan data dari manuskrip yang ditulis dalam bahasa di setiap waktu tertentu, baik dalam bahasa Inggris dan Jerman. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode deskriptif kualitatif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa: 1) Diachronically, Inggris dan Jerman akan melalui empat periode dalam pengembangan pola sintaksnya; 2) Pola kalimat Inggris Kuno dan Lama Tinggi Jerman tampaknya sama, yaitu struktur SVO; 3) Adanya konjungsi memisahkan kata kerja dan benda dalam bahasa Jerman, sementara itu tidak mengubah apapun dalam peraturan perintah bahasa Inggris dari bahasa Inggris Tengah ke bahasa Inggris Modern; 3) Kata kerja bahasa Inggris Modern awal harus diletakkan di posisi kedua. Namun, kata kerja Verba Awal Baru Tinggi ditempatkan disepakati bersamaan karena konjungsi mempengaruhi posisi kata kerja dan objek.

Kata kunci: Sintaksis; bahasa Jerman; linguistik historis; bahasa Indo-Jerman


Keywords


Syntax; Germanic languages; historical linguistics; Indo-Germanic languages

References


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17509/bs_jpbsp.v17i2.9653

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