MENGGUGAT FENOMENA EKSPLOITASI IKAN HIU DENGAN PENDEKATAN LITERASI KRITIS DI SEKOLAH DASAR

Ira Rengganis, Teguh Ibrahim, Mela Darmayanti, Winda Marlina Juwita

Abstract


Abstract: The purpose of this study is to provide an understanding of how critical literacy-based learning practices can be implemented in elementary schools by raising the issue of exploitation of nature. The practice of critical literacy-based learning in this study uses an educational model with problems whose philosophical basis derives from the critical pedagogic of Paulo Freire. The concept of education seeks to deal with humans on problematic phenomena that disturb the balance of life to be addressed critically. The phenomenon that will be sued is "massive exploitation of shark fins by humans". The research method used is qualitative with an auto-ethnographic narrative approach which aims to chronologically describe the experiences of researchers when implementing critical literacy-based learning in elementary schools. The results showed that critical literacy learning using education with problems can be implemented through three stages, namely 1) pre-reading (problematization), 2) reading stage (critical discourse discussions), and 3) post-reading stage (social action) transformative). The implication of critical literacy based learning is the rise of critical awareness of students characterized by several indicators, namely: 1) students are able to name and decipher the core of the problem of exploitation of nature and its causal relationship with greedy and vile human nature; 2) students are able to create illustrated images that represent ideal situations that should occur; 3) students are able to write critical arguments that represent suggestions, criticisms, and hopes for fishermen to be able to maintain marine ecosystems by not exploiting sharks. This research has the significance of enriching pedagogical literacy science, especially critical literacy-based learning in elementary schools.

Keywords: Critical Pedagogic, Critical Literacy, Nature Exploitation, Illustration Figure.

 

Abstrak: Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah memberikan pemahaman tentang bagaimana praktik pembelajaran berbasis literasi kritis dapat diimplemantisakan di sekolah dasar dengan mengangkat isu eksploitasi alam. Praktik pembelajaran berbasis literasi kritis pada penelitian ini menggunakan model pendidikan hadap masalah yang dasar filosofisnya berasal dari pedagogik kritis Paulo Freire. Konsep pendidikan ini mengupayakan penghadapan manusia pada fenomena problematik yang menganggu keseimbangan kehidupan untuk disikapi secara kritis. Fenomena yang akan digugat adalah “eksploitasi sirip ikan hiu secara masif oleh manusia”. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah kualitatif dengan pendekatan naratif type auto-etnografi yang bertujuan untuk menceritakan secara kronologis pengalaman peneliti ketika mengimplementasikan pembelajaran berbasis literasi kritis di sekolah dasar. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pembelajaran literasi kritis dengan menggunakan pendidikan hadap masalah dapat diimplementasikan melalui tiga tahap yaitu 1) tahap pra-baca (problematisasi), 2) tahap membaca (diskusi-analisis wacana kritis), dan 3) tahap pasca-baca (tindakan sosial transformatif). Implikasi dari pembelajaran berbasis literasi kritis adalah bangkitnya kesadaran kritis siswa yang ditandai oleh beberapa indikator yaitu : 1) siswa mampu menamai dan mengurai inti dari problematika eksploitasi alam dan hubungan kausalitasnya dengan sifat manusia yang serakah dan keji ; 2) siswa mampu mengkreasikan gambar ilustrasi yang merepresentasikan situasi ideal yang seharusnya terjadi; 3) siswa mampu menulis karangan argumentasi kritis yang merepresentasikan saran, kritik, dan harapan pada para nelayan agar mampu menjaga ekosistem laut dengan tidak melakukan eksploitasi ikan hiu. Penelitian ini memiliki signifikansi memperkaya keilmuan pedagogik mulitiliterasi khususnya pembelajaran berbasis literasi kritis di sekolah dasar. 

Kata Kunci : Pedagogik Kritis, Literasi Kritis, Eksploitasi Alam, Gambar Ilustrasi.


Keywords


Pedagogik Kritis, Literasi Kritis, Eksploitasi Alam, Gambar Ilustrasi.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Abidin, Y. (2011). Penelitian Pendidikan dalam Gamitan Pendidikan Dasar. Bandung: Rizki Press

Abidin, Y. (2012). Pembelajaran Bahasa Berbasis Karakter. Bandung: PT Refika Aditama.

Abidin, Y. (2015). Pembelajaran multiliterasi: Sebuah jawaban atas tantangan pendidikan abad ke-21 dalam konteks keIndonesiaan. Bandung: PT Refika Aditama.

Alwasilah, C. (2012). Pokoknya Kualitatif (Dasar-dasar Merancang dan Melakukan Penelitian Kualitatif). Bandung : Pustaka Jaya

Cooper, K., & White, R. E. (2008). Critical Literacy for school improvement: an action research project. Improving Schools, 11(2), 101-113.

Creswell, J. (2014). Penelitian Kualitatif & Desain Riset - Memilih di Antara Lima Pendekatan [Ahmad Lintang Lajuardi, Trans]. Yogyakarta : Pustaka Pelajar

Dalman (2014). Keterampilan Menulis. Jakarta: Raja Grafindo Persada

Fairclough, N. (1992). Critical language awareness. London: Longman

Freire, P.,& Macedo,D. (2005). Literacy : Reading the Word and the World. London : Routledge Classics

Freire,P. (2008). Pendidikan Kaum Tertindas. Yogyakarta : LP3S

Giroux, H. (1993). Literacy and the politics of difference. In C. Lankshear & P. McLaren (Eds.), Critical literacy: politics, praxis and the postmodern (pp.367-377). Albany: State University of New York Press.

Gee, J.P. (2004). Situated Language and Learning: A Critique of Traditional Schooling. New York: Routledge.

Lesley, M. (2004). Looking for critical literacy with postbaccalaureate content area literacy students. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 48 (4), 320-334.

Ioannidou, E. (2015). Critical literacy in the first year of primary school: Some insights from Greek Cypriot classrooms. Journal of Early Childhood Literacy, 15(2), 177-202.

Kaur, S. (2013). Critical literacy practices of English majors in a tertiary institution. GEMA Online Journal of Language Studies, 13 (2), 21-39.

Kaur, S., & Sidhu, G. K. (2014). Evaluating the critical literacy practices of tertiary students. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 123, 44-52.

Kesuma, D. & Ibrahim, T. (2016). Struktur Fundamental Pedagogik (Membedah Pemikiran Paulo Freire). Bandung : Refika Aditama

Kist, W. (2005). New literacies in action: Teaching and learning in multiple media (Vol. 75). Teachers College Press

Koh, A. (2002). Towards a critical pedagogy: creating „thinking schools‟ in Singapore. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 34:3, 255-264

Koo, Y.L., Wong, F.F. & Kemboja Ismail. (2012). Students’ critical consciousness through critical literacy awareness. GEMA Online Journal of Language Studies, 12 (1), 727-143.

Lankshear, C. & McLaren, P. (1993). Critical Literacy: Politics, Praxis and the Postmodern. Albany: State University of New York Press.

Lee, Y. J. (2017). First steps toward critical literacy: Interactions with an English narrative text among three English as a foreign language readers in South Korea. Journal of Early Childhood Literacy, 17(1), 26-46.

MacKnight, C.B. (2000). Teaching critical thinking through online discussions. Educause Quarterly, 4. University of Massachusetts.

Priyatni, T (2012). Membaca Sastra dengan Ancangan Literasi Kritis. Jakarta: Bumi Aksara.

Rosenblatt, L.M. (2004). The transactional theory of reading and writing. In R.B. Ruddel & N.J. Unrau (Eds.),Theoretical models and processes of reading 5th ed (pp. 1363-1398). Newark, DE: International Reading Association.

Simon, R. (1992) Teaching against the Grain. Texts for a pedagogy of possibility (Toronto, OISE Press).

Tilaar, H. A. R., Paat, J. P., & Paat, L. (2011). Pedagogik Kritis: Perkembangan, Substansi, dan Perkembangannya di Indonesia. Jakarta: Rineka Cipta.

Mongabay. (2018, 28 Maret). Ekosistem Biota Laut. Diperoleh 18 November 2018, dari http://www.mongabay.co.id/

Youtube. (2018, 01 Maret). Kehidupan Ikan Hiu. Diperoleh 18 November 2018, dari https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BDxwT8wqUzU

Youtube. (2018, 02 Agustus 2018). Pembantaian Ikan Hiu. Diperoleh 18 November 2018. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zep7B1esW-M




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17509/eh.v11i1.14179

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




    

EduHumaniora: Jurnal Pendidikan Dasar is published by PGSD UPI Kampus Cibiru and Himpunan Dosen PGSD Indonesia.

Creative Commons Attribution ShareAlike license icon

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

View My Stats