THE EFFECTS OF SELF-REGULATED LEARNING STRATEGIES ON PRESCHOOL CHILDREN’S SELF-EFFICACY AND PERFORMANCE IN EARLY WRITING

Siew Siew Kim, Mariani Md. Nor

Abstract


To enhance the will and the skills to express thoughts explicitly and effectively in early writing among preschool children, self-regulated learning (SRL) was suggested for preschool children as one of the effective learning approaches. This quasi-experimental study involved seventy-five preschool children (5-6 years old) from two public preschools in Selangor, Malaysia. This study investigated the effects of SRL strategies on early writing self-efficacy and early writing performance among preschool children. Interview data was engaged and supported the quantitative result to obtain a deep insight of the findings. Two-way Repeated Measure ANCOVA was employed and confirmed the effectiveness of self-regulated learning intervention with an interaction effect between the test and group for early writing self-efficacy being statistically significant (F(1, 72) = 12.665; p = 0.001, 2= 0.150), with Cohen’s d = 0.84;  and early writing performance statistically significant (F(1, 72) = 110.801; p < 0.001, 2= 0.606), with Cohen’s d = 2.84. The result also confirmed that self-monitoring and controlling (F (5, 69) = 17.934, p < 0.001), with an adjusted R² = 0.534, was a strong predictor for early writing self-efficacy, and planning and goal setting (F(5, 69) = 12.706, p< 0.001), with an adjusted R² = 0.442, were a strong predictor for early writing performance. Eleven self-regulated learning strategies used emerged from the interviews’ data pertaining to different contexts. According to the participant children, planning and goal setting, self-monitoring, and self-evaluation were the strategies that will assure their writing quality. These responses supported the results produced by the quantitative data. The findings of this research provide a useful insight into early writing and self-regulated learning instructions in the Malaysian preschool context.

Keywords


early writing; preschool; self-efficacy; self-regulated learning

Full Text:

PDF

References


Abbott, R. D., Berninger, V. W., & Fayol, M. (2010). Longitudinal relationships of levels of language in writing and between writing and reading in grades 1 to 7. Journal of Educational Psychology, 102(2), 281-298.

Anam, S. & Stracke, E. (2016). Language learning strategies of Indonesia primary school students: In relation to self-efficacy beliefs. System 60(2016), 1-10.

Bandura, A. (2012). Social cognitive theory In P. A. M. V. Lange, W. Kruglanski & E. T. H. Thousand (Eds.), Handbook of theories of social psychology (Vol. 1, pp. 349-373). Thousand Oaks, CA.: Sage London.

Bingham, G. E., Quinn, M. F. & Gerde, H. K. (2017). Examining early childhood teachers’ writing practices: Associations between pedagogical supports and children’s writing skills. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 39, 35–46.

Bulut, P. (2017). The effect of primary school students’ writing attitudes and writing self-efficacy beliefs on their summary writing achievement. International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education, 10(2), 281-285.

Costa, L. J., Ahmad, U., Edwards, C., Vanselous, S., Yerby, D.C., & Hooper, S.R. (2017). The Writing Side. In Miller, B., McCardle, P. & Long, R. (Eds). Teaching reading and writing: Improving instruction and student achievement (pp. 21-34), Baltimore, Maryland: Brooke.

Demirtas, V. Y. (2013). Self-regulation strategies of the six-year-old preschool children. International Journal of Academic Research, 5(2), 264-273. doi: 10.7813/2075-4124.2013/5-2/B.42

Dent, A. L., & Koenka, A. C. (2015). The relation between self-regulated learning and achievement across childhood and adolence: A meta-analysis. Educ Psychol Rev., 28, 425–474. doi: 10.1007/s10648-015-9320-8

Diamond, A. (2016). Why improving and assessing executive functions early in life is critical. Executive function in preschool age children: Integrating measurement, neurodevelopment and translational research. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Gerde, H. K., Bingham, G. E., & Pendergast, M.L. (2015). Environmental and teacher supports to writing in classrooms. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 31, 31-46.

Graham, S., Gillespie, A., & McKeown, D. (2013). Writing: Importance, development, and instruction. Reading and Writing, 26(1), 1-15.

Hall, A. H., Simpson, A., Guo, Y., & Wang, S. (2015). Examining the effects of preschool writing instruction on emergent literacy skills: A systematic review of the literature. Literacy Research and Instruction, 54(2), 115-134.

Hayes, J. R., & Olinghouse, N. G. (2015). Can cognitive writing models inform the design of the common core state standards? The Elementary School Journal, 115(4), 480-497.

Hutchinson, L. R. (2013). Young children's engagement in self-regulation at school. University of British Columbia.

Jalaluddin, I. (2013). Predicting writing performance outcome via writing self-efficacy and implication on L2 tertiary learners in Malaysia. World Applied Sciences Journal. 26, 643-652.

Kim, J. A., & Lorsbach, A. W. (2005). Writing self-efficacy in young children: Issues for the early grades environment. Learning Environments Research, 8, 157-175.

Limpo, T., & Alves, R. A. (2013). Modeling writing development: Contribution of transcription and self-regulation to Portuguese students' text generation quality. Journal of Educational Psychology, 105(2), 401.

Limpo, T., Alves, R. A., & Fidalgo, R. (2014). Children's high‐level writing skills: Development of planning and revising and their contribution to writing quality. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 84(2), 177-193.

McClelland, M. M., C.Acock, A., Piccinin, A., Rhea, S. A., & Stallings, M. C. (2013). Relations between preschool attention span-persistence and age 25 educational outcomes. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 28(2), 314-324.

Mega, C., Ronconi, L., & Beni, R. D. (2014). What makes a good student? How emotions, self-regulated learning and motivation contribute to academic achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 106(1), 121-131.

Metallidaou, P. (2010). Children's self-regulated learning profile in language and mathematics: The role of task value beliefs. Psychology in the Schools, 47(8), 776-788. doi: 10.1002/pits.20503

Miller, B., McCardle, P. & Long, R. (2017). Teaching reading and writing: Improving instruction and student achievement. 10th edition, Baltimore, Maryland: Brooke.

MOE. (2015). Malaysia Education Blueprint 2013-2025. Ministry of Education, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

MOE. (2017). National Preschool Standard-Based Curriculum: Standard-Based Curriculum and Assessment Document Putrajaya: Ministry of Education Malaysia.

Ng, P. F., & Yeo, K. J. (2014). Preschool Teachers’ Beliefs and Practices on Early Literacy Instruction. Sains Humanika, 2(4).

Olinghouse, N. G., & Graham, S. (2009). The relationship between the discourse knowledge and the writing performance of elementary-grade students. Journal of Educational Psychology, 101(1), 37.

Panadero, E. (2017). A review of self-regulated learning: Six models and four directions for research. Front. Psychology, 8, 422. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00422

Pino-Pasternak, D., Basilio, M., & Whitebread, D. (2014). Interventions and classroom contexts that promote self-regulated learning: Two intervention studies in United Kingdom primary classrooms. PSYKHE 2014, 23(2), 1-13. doi: 10.7764/psykhe.23.2.739

Puranik, C. S., Al Otaiba, S., Sidler, J. F., & Greulich, L. (2014). Exploring the amount and type of writing instruction during language arts instruction in kindergarten classrooms. Reading and Writing, 27(2), 213-236.

Samah, S. I. S. A., Majzub, R., & Mahamod, Z. (2015). Teaching Writing in Preschool Classroom. Journal of Applied Research in Education, 19, 50-59.

Schunk, D. H., & Zimmerman, B. J. (2007). Influencing children's self-efficacy and self- regulation of reading and writing through modeling. Reading and Writing Quarterly, 23, 7-25.

Teng, L. S., & Zhang, L. J. (2016). A questionnaire‐based validation of multidimensional models of self‐regulated learning strategies. The Modern Language Journal, 100(3), 674-701.

White, M. C., & DiBenedetto, M. K. (2015). Self-regulation and the common core: Application to ELA standards: Routledge.

Whitebread, D., & Basilio, M. (2012). The emergence and early development of self-regulation in young children. Profesorado, 16(1), 15-33.

Whitebread, D., Coltman, P., Pasternak, D. P., Sangster, C., Grau, V., Bingham, S., Demetriou, D. (2009). The development of two observational tools for assessing metacognition and self-regulated learning in young children. Metacognition and learning, 4(1), 63-85.

Zimmerman, B. J. (2013). From cognitive modelling to self-regulation: A social cognitive career path. Educational Psychologist, 48(3), 135-147.

Zimmerman, B. J., & Risemberg, R. (1997). Becoming a self-regulated writer: A social cognitive perspective. Contemporary educational psychology, 22(1), 73-101.

Zimmerman, B. J., & Schunk, D. H. (2012). Self-regulated learning and academic achievement: Theory, research, and practice: Springer Science & Business Media.

Zumbrunn, S., Bruning, R., Kauffman, D., & Hayes, M. (2010). Explaining determinants of confidence and success in the elementary writing classroom. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Denver, CO.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17509/ije.v11i2.14504

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2019 Siew Siew Kim, Mariani Md. Nor



Lisensi Creative Commons
This work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.