META-ANALISIS: WORKING MEMORY DAN LITERASI PADA ANAK DISLEKSIA

Trubus Raharjo

Sari


This meta-analysis aims to find out the working memory relationship with literacy reading in dyslexic children. Neuropsychological disorders can occur in individuals with dyslexia and this is related to reading literacy. Reading literacy is a cognitive ability to generate information, store stimuli and process phonology. Individuals with poor reading ability may be affected by working memory. A total of 2,324 samples and 29 working memory data relationships with literacy reading were collected from 12 published manuscripts in the year 2002 sd range. 2015. The observational sites of these studies include the continents of the Middle East, Europe, and America. The results of the analysis in this meta-analysis study showed that the relationship was moderate with a correlation (ř) of 0.33, standard deviation (SD) of 0.280, and the confidence interval was in the range - 0.409 <ř <0.689, that we can conclude that that (ř) was significant. These results suggested that there was a relationship between working memory and literacy.

 

Abstrak
Meta-analisis ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui hubungan working memory dengan literasi membaca pada anak disleksia. Gangguan neuropsikologi dapat terjadi pada individu dengan disleksia dan hal ini berkaitan dengan literasi membaca. Literasi membaca merupakan kemampuan kognitif untuk memasukkan informasi, menyimpan stimulus dan memproses phonologi. Individu dengan kemampuan membaca yang buruk dapat dipengaruhi oleh working memory. Sebanyak 2.324 sampel dan 29 data hubungan working memory dengan literasi membaca dikumpulkan dari 12 naskah yang dipublikasikan pada rentang tahun 2002 sd. 2015. Lokasi observasi dari studi-studi tersebut mencakup benua Timur Tengah, Eropa, dan Amerika. Hasil analisis pada studi meta-analisis ini menunjukkan bahwa hubungan tersebut tergolong sedang dengan korelasi (ř) sebesar 0.33, standar deviasi (SD) sebesar 0.280, dan interval kepercayaan berada pada rentang -0.409 < ř < 0.689, artinya nilai (ř) dapat diterima. Hasil ini menunjukkan bahwa hipotesis yang menyatakan bahwa ada hubungan antaraworking memory dengan literasi dapat diterima.


Kata Kunci


working memory; literation; dyslexic children; literasi; anak disleksia

Teks Lengkap:

PDF (English)

Referensi


Alloway, T.P., Archibald, L. (2008). Working memory and Learning in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder and Specific Language Impairment. Journal of Learning Disabilities Volume 41 Number 3. 251-262

Afangideh, M.E & Jude, W.I. (2012). Developing Literacy Skill to Enhance Academic Performance of Learners in UYO Education Zone. Academic Research International. Journal Social Sceince Humanities. Vol.3. No.3.

Badian, N.A. (2000). Prediction and prevention of reading failure. Baltimore: York Press.

Badian, N. A. (2001). Phonological and orthographic processing: Their roles in reading prediction. Annals of Dyslexia, 51, 179-202.

Badian, N. (2005). Does a visual-orthographic deficit contribute to reading disability? Annals of Dyslexia, 55, 28-52.

Beaton, A.A. (2004). Dyslexia, Reading and The Brain. Psychology Press 270 Medison Evenue: New York

Berninger, V.W., Abbot, R.B., Swanson, L.H., Lovit, D., Trivedi, P., Shin-Ju Lin, Gauld, L., Youngstrom, M., Shimada, S., Amtmann, D. (2010). Relationship of Word and sentence level working memory to reading and writing in second, forth and six grade. Language Speech and Hearing Service in School. Vol 41, 179-193.

Berninger, V. W., Abbott, R. D., Vermeulen, K., Ogier, S., Brooksher, R., Zook, D., et al. (2002). Comparison of faster and slower responders to early intervention in reading: Differentiating features of their language profiles. Learning Disability Quarterly, 25, 59-75.

Brandenburg, J., Klesczewski, J., Fischbach, A., Schuchardt, K., Büttner, G., Hasselhorn, M. (2015). Working memory in Children with Learning Disabilities in Reading versus Spelling: Searching for Overlapping and Specific Cognitive Factors. Journal of Learning Disabilities. 2015, Vol. 48(6) 622 –634

Bresnahan, B. (2006). Component processes in the predictors of reading achievement: direct and indirect effects. ProQuest Information and Learning Company.

Facoetti, A., Larusso, M.L., Cattaneo, C., Galli, R. & Montelli, M. (2005). Visual and Auditory Attentional Capture are Both Sluggish wit Developmental Dyslexia. Acta Neurobiologia Experimentalis. 65. 51-72.

Frith, U. (2002). Cognitive Development and Cognitive Deficit. The Psychologist: Bulletin of The British Psychological Society, 5(1). 13-19.

Fuchs, D., & Fuchs, L. S. (2006). Introduction to response to intervention: What, why, and how valid is it? Reading Research Quarterly, 41, 93–99.

Gang, M., Siegel, L.S. (2002). Sound-symbol learning in children with Dyslexia. Journal of Learning Disabilities; Mar/Apr 2002; 35, 2

Guthrie, J.T., Alao, S., Rinehart, J.M. (1996). Engagemant in Reading for Young Adolescents. Journal of Adolescents and Adult Literacy. 40,4.348-446.

Hachmann, W.M., Bogaerts, L., Szmalec, A., Woumans, E., Duyck, W., and Job, R. (2014). Short-term memory for order but not for item information is impaired in developmental dyslexia. Ann. of Dyslexia (2014) 64:121–136

Hunter, JE & Schmidt, FL. 1990. Methods of Meta-Analysis; Correcting Error and Bias in Research Findings. Newbury Park: Sage Publications.

Larusso, M.L., Facoetti, A., Bakker, D.J. (2011). Neuropsychological Treatment of Dyslexia: Does Type of Treatment Matter? Journal of Learning Disabilities. 44(2), 136-149.

Malinsky, D. (2002). Visual discrimination and visual memory functioning in dyslexia: is there an association with reading and spelling deficits. ProQuest Information and Learning Company

Mauer, D. M., & Kamhi, A. G. (1996). Fac-tors that influence phoneme-grapheme correspondence learning. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 29, 259-270.

McCallum, R.S., Bell, S.M., Wood, M.S., Below, J.L., Choate, S.M., and McCane, S.J. (2008). What Is the Role of Working memory in Reading Relative to the Big Three Processing Variables Orthography, Phonology, and Rapid Naming? Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment Volume 24 Number 3, September 2006, 243-259

Howes, N.L., Bigler, E.D., Burlingame, G.M., and Lawson.J.S. (2003). Memory Performance of Children with Dyslexia: A Comparative Analysis of Theoretical Perspectives. Journal of Leaning Disabilities. Vol.36, 3.

O’Shaughnessy, T.E., & Swanson, H.L. (1998). Do immediate memory deficits in students with learning disabilities in reading reflect a developmental lag or deficit?: A selective meta-analysis of the literature. Learning Disability Quarterly, 21.

Nancy-Louise Howes, Erin D. Bigler, Gary M. Burlingame, and John S. Lawson. (2003). Memory Performance of Children with Dyslexia: A Comparative Analysis of Theoretical Perspectives. Journal of Leaning Disabilities. Vol.36, 3.

Petrauskas, R. & Rourke, B. (1979). Identification of Subgroup of Retarded. Readers: A Neuropsychological Multivariate Approach. Journal of Clinical Neuropsychology. I. 17-37.

Polychroni, F., Economou, A., Printezi, A., Koutlidi, I. (2011). Verbal memory and semantic organization of children with learning disabilities. Learning Disabiliteis: A Contempory Journal. 9 (2). 27-44.

Roberts, R., & Mather, N. (1997). Orthographic dyslexia: The neglected subtype. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 12, 236-250.

Schuchardt, K., Maehler, C., Hasselhorn, M. (2008). Working memory Deficits in Children with Specific Learning Disorders. Journal of Learning Disabilities. Volume 41 Number 6. 514-523

Shaywitz, S.E. & Shaywitz B.A. (2003). Neurobiological Indices of Dyslexia. Dalam L. Swanson, K. R. Harris & S. Graham (Eds). Handbook of Learning Disabilities. (pp 514 -531). New York: Guilford Press. In Nelson, A & Ellison, P.A.T. (2009). The Neuropsychology of Women. Springer Science + Bussines Media. LCC.

Shiel, G. (2002). Literacy Standards And Factor Affecting Literacy: In G. Raid & J. Wearmourth (Eds). Diyslexia And Literacy. (131). John Wellly and Son. USA

Singleton, C. (2002). Dyslexia: Cognitive Factor And Implication for Litaracy. Dalam G. Raid & J. Wearmourth (Eds). Dislexia and Literacy. John Wellly and Son. USA

Stevenson, J dan Fredman, G. (1990). The Social Enviromental Corellates of Reading Ability. Child Psychology and Psychiatry Journal. Pergamon Press. Great Britain.

Swanson, H. L., & Sachs-Lee, C. (2001). Learning disabled readers’ working memory: What does or does not develop? Unpublished manuscript, University of California, Riverside.

Swanson, H.L., & Siegel, L. (2001). Learning disabilities as a working memory deficit. Issues in Education, 7, 1-48.

Swanson, H.L., O’Connor, R. (2009). The Role of Working memory and Fluency Practice on the Reading Comprehension of Students Who Are Dysfluent Readers. Journal of Learning Disabilities Volume 42 Number 6. 548-575.

Swanson, H.L., Xinhua, Z., Jerman, O. (2009), Working Memory, Short Term Memory and Reading Disabilities: A Selective Meta-Analysis of The Literature, Journal of Learning Disability. 42, 260-287.

Szmalec, A., Loncke, M., Page, M. P. A., & Duyck, W. (2011). Order or disorder? Impaired Hebb learning in dyslexia. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 37(5), 1270 –127 9.

Tsur, R.R., Faust, M., Zivotofsky, A.Z. (2008). Poor Performance on Serial Visual Tasks in Persons with Reading Disabilities, Impaired Working Memory? Journal of Learning Disabilities. Volume 41 Number 5.

Vellutino, F.R., Fletcher, J.M., Snowling, M.J. & Scanlon, D.M. (2004). Specific Reading Disabilities (Dyslexia): What We Have Learned In The Past Four Decades? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 45, 2-40.

Wolf, M. & Bowers, P.G. (1999). The Double Deficit Hypothesis for The

Developmental Dyslexias. Journal of Educational Psychology. 91, 415-438.

Zeffiro, T., & Eden, G. (2000). The neural basis of developmental dyslexia. Annals of Dyslexia, 50, 1-30


Refbacks

  • Saat ini tidak ada refbacks.