Conflict Management among Selected Officials of State Universities and Colleges in the Philippines

Ronald Allan S Mabunga, Maria Eljie M Mabunga

Abstract


ABSTRACT: The study concerns on dominant conflict management approach of officials of selected SUCs (State Universities and Colleges) in the Philippines. Related studies and literature on the importance of systems approach in organizational analysis along with theories and practices on the role of culture in conflict analysis and resolution along with the principles and theories in negotiation and conflict management system design are presented and utilized as the research theoretical framework. Kenneth W. Thomas & Ralph H. Kilmann (2017)’s conflict behavior survey instrument was also used. The results show that the dominant conflict management style of officials from the selected SUCs in the Philippines is that of “collaborator”. The respondents open to other conflict management styles in responding to conflicts, including compromiser, accommodator, controller, and avoider. While the sex and administrative positions of the respondents (university officials) do not have any statistical significant difference in their preference of conflict management styles. So, more than majority of the respondents are using several conflict management styles as they address interpersonal conflicts in various contexts.

KEY WORD: Conflict Management Style; University Officials; Interpersonal Conflicts 

ABSTRAKSI: “Manajemen Konflik diantara para Pejabat Terpilih pada Universitas dan Perguruan Tinggi Negeri di Filipina”. Studi ini mengenai pendekatan manajemen konflik yang dominan dari para pejabat SUCs (Universitas dan Perguruan Tinggi Negeri) tertentu di Filipina. Terkait dengan studi dan literatur tentang pentingnya pendekatan sistem dalam analisis organisasi bersama dengan teori dan praksis tentang peran budaya dalam analisis dan resolusi konflik bersama dengan prinsip-prinsip dan teori dalam negosiasi dan desain sistem manajemen konflik disajikan dan digunakan sebagai kerangka teori penelitian. Instrumen survei perilaku konflik dari Kenneth W. Thomas & Ralph H. Kilmann (2017) juga digunakan. Hasil kajian menunjukan bahwa gaya manajemen konflik dari pejabat yang dominan dalam SUC terpilih di Filipina adalah "kolaborator". Responden terbuka terhadap gaya manajemen konflik lainnya dalam menanggapi konflik, termasuk kompromi, akomodator, pengontrol, dan penghindar. Manakala jenis kelamin dan posisi administratif responden (pejabat universitas) tidak memiliki perbedaan statistik yang signifikan dalam preferensi mereka terhadap gaya manajemen konflik. Jadi, lebih dari mayoritas responden menggunakan beberapa gaya manajemen konflik ketika mereka menangani konflik interpersonal dalam berbagai konteks.

KATA KUNCI: Gaya Manajemen Konflik; Pejabat Universitas; Konflik Antarpribadi.

  

About the Authors: Ronald Allan S. Mabunga, Ph.D. is a Director, Center for Planning & Quality Assurance PNU (Philippine Normal University), Taft Avenue, Manila 1000, the Philippines. Maria Eljie M. Mabunga, M.A. is a Professor in Peace Education at the PNU, Taft Avenue, Manila 1000, the Philippines. For academic interests, the authors are able to be contacted via e-mails address at: mabunga.ras@pnu.edu.ph and mabunga@gmail.com 

Suggested Citation: Mabunga, Ronald Allan S. & Maria Eljie M. Mabunga. (2019). “Conflict Management among Selected Officials of State Universities and Colleges in the Philippines” in MIMBAR PENDIDIKAN: Jurnal Indonesia untuk Kajian Pendidikan, Volume 4(1), Maret, pp.1-20. Bandung, Indonesia: UPI [Indonesia University of Education] Press, ISSN 2527-3868 (print) and 2503-457X (online).

Article Timeline: Accepted (October 28, 2018); Revised (December 27, 2018); and Published (March 30, 2019).


Keywords


Conflict Management Style; University Officials; Interpersonal Conflicts

Full Text:

PDF

References


Alfredson, T. & A. Cungu. (2008). Negotiation Theory and Practice: A Review of the Literature. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Available online also at: http://www.fao.org/docs/up/easypol/555/4-5_negotiation_background_paper_179en.pdf [accessed in Manila, the Philippines: January 15, 2019].

Anderson, Ian & David Hipgrave. (2015). Philippines Political Economy Assessment Report: An Assessment of the Political Economy Factors that Shape the Prioritisation and Allocation of Resources for Essential Health Services for Women and Children. Manila: The UNICEF Office. Available online also at: https://www.unicef.org/health/files/Philippines_PEA_-_design_version_28May15.pdf [accessed in Manila, the Philippines: January 8, 2019].

Augsburger, D. (1992). Conflict Mediation Across Cultures. Louisville, KY: John Know Press.

Avruch, K. (1998). Culture and Conflict Resolution. Washington, D.C.: USIP Press.

Becker, Gay. (2003). “Cultural Expressions of Bodily Awareness among Chronically III Filipino Americans” in Annals of Family Medicine, Volume 1(2), July, pp.113-118. Available online also at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1466576/ [accessed in Manila, the Philippines: January 15, 2019].

Blake, J. & S. Mouton. (1970). “Reactions to Intergroup Completion Under Win-Lose Conditions” in Journal of Management Science, Volume 7(4), pp.420-435.

Breslin, J.S. & J.Z. Rubin [eds]. (1993). Negotiation: Theory and Practice. Cambridge, MA: Program on Negotiation Books.

Brett, J.M. (1984). “Managing Organizational Conflict” in Journal of Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, Volume 15, pp.664-678.

Browaeys, M.J. & R. Price. (2015). Understanding Cross-Cultural Management. New York: Pearson.

Bush, R.A.B. & J. Folger. (2005). The Promise of Mediation: The Transformative Approach to Conflict. San Francisco, CA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

CHED [Comission on Higher Education]. (2015). “Roadmap for Public Higher Education Reform”. Available online at: http://www.ched.gov.ph/wpcontent/uploads/Roadmap-for-Public-Higher-Education-Reform1.pdf [accessed in Manila, the Philippines: January 8, 2019].

Chikere, Cornell C. & Jude Nwoka. (2015). “The Systems Theory of Management in Modern Day Organizations: A Study of Aldgate Congress Resort Limited Port Harcourt” in International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, Volume 5, Issue 9 [September]. Available online also at: http://www.ijsrp.org/research-paper-0915/ijsrp-p4554.pdf [accessed in Manila, the Philippines: January 8, 2019].

Coates, M.L., G.T. Furlong & B.M. Downie. (2013). Conflict Management and Dispute Resolution Systems in Canadian Nonunionized Organizations. Canada: Industrial Relations Centre, first published in 1997.

Conbere, J. (2001). “Theory Building for Conflict Management System Design” in Conflict Resolution Quarterly, Volume 19(2), pp.215-236.

Constantino, R. (1994). The Philippines: A Continuing Past. Quezon City: Foundation for Nationalist Studies.

Cooper, C. et al. (1993). “Values and Communication of Chinese, Filipino, Mexican, and Vietnamese American Adolescents with Their Families and Friends” in S. Shulman & W.A. Collins [eds]. Father-Adolescent Relationships. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.

Costantino, C. & C. Merchant. (1996). Designing Conflict Management Systems: A Guide to Creating Productive and Healthy Organizations. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Cragan, J.G. & D.W. Wright. (1986). Communication in Small Group Discussions. St. Paul, Minnesota: West Publishing Co.

Creswell, J.W. (1998). Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choosing among the Five Traditions. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.

De Dreu, Carsten K.W. & Michele J. Gelfand. (2008). The Psychology of Conflict and Conflict Management in Organizations. New York and London: Taylor & Francis Group. Available online also at: http://www.untag-smd.ac.id/files/Perpustakaan_Digital_1/CONFLICT%20MANAGEMENT [accessed in Manila, the Philippines: January 8, 2019].

De Janasz, S.C., K.O. Dowd & B.Z. Schneider. (2006). Interpersonal Skills in Organization. New York: McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 2nd edition.

Denhardt, Robert B. & Thomas J. Catlaw. (2015). Theories of Public Organization. Australia: Cengage Learning, seventh edition.

Denzin, N.K. & Y.S. Lincoln. (2003). The Landscape of Qualitative Research: Theories and Issues. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.

Druckman, D. (2005). Doing Research: Methods of Inquiry for Conflict Analysis. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.

Durban, J. & R. Catalan. (2012). “Issues and Concerns of Philippine Education through the Years” in Asian Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities, Vol.1, No.2 [May].

Fisher, N. (2010). “A Better Way to Manage Conflict” in Political Quarterly, Volume 81(3), pp.428-430.

Fisher, L. & W. Ury. (1981). Getting to Yes: Negotiating Agreement without Giving in. New York: Penguin Books.

Fouseki, K. (2009). “Conflict Resolution in the Management of In-Situ Museums”. Paper for the 22nd Annual International Association of Conflict Management Conference in Kyoto, Japan, on 15-18 June. Available online also at: https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1484888 [accessed in Manila, the Philippines: January 15, 2019].

Galace, J. & L. Castro. (2010). Peace Education: A Pathway to a Culture of Peace. Quezon City: Center for Peace Education, Miriam College.

Gebregiorgs, M.T. (2018). “The Role of Public Interest Litigation in the Achievement of Sustainable Waste Management in Ethiopia” in Sustainability, Volume 10, pp.1-20. DOI: 10.3390/su10124735.

Geertz, Clifford. (1993). The Interpretation of Cultures: Selected Essays. London: Fontana Press, first published in 1973.

Germann, Major Wade A. (2012). “Negotiation in the Operatioal Environment”. Unpublished Monograph. Fort Leavenworth, Kansas: School of Advanced Military Studies, United States Army Command and General Staff College. Available online also at: https://apps.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a569996.pdf [accessed in Manila, the Philippines: January 15, 2019].

Goehre, Sarah L. (2016). “Cross-Cultural Leadership in the Financial Industry: The Impact of Globalization on Corporate Culture and Leadership Effectiveness in Multinational Banks”. Unpublished Bachelor Thesis. Goethe, Germany: Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, University Frankfurt. Available online also at: http://www.wiwi-frankfurt.de/DkA/02-04-Sarah_L_Goehre-web.pdf [accessed in Manila, the Philippines: January 15, 2019].

Greenhalgh, Paul. (1996). “Behaviour: Roles, Responsibilties, and Referrals in the Shadow of the Code of Practice” in Wiley Online Library, on February. Available online also at: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1467-9604.1996.tb00044.x [accessed in Manila, the Philippines: January 8, 2019].

Gutmann, H.M. (2009). “The Role of Leaders in Conflict Management” in Leader to Leader Journal, Volume 31, pp.48-53.

Haddad, Wadi D. (1995). Education Policy-Planning Process: An Applied Framework. Paris: UNESCO International Institute for Educational Planning. Available online also at: http://www.unesco.org/education/pdf/11_200.pdf [accessed in Manila, the Philippines: January 8, 2019].

Harzing, A.W., S. Reiche & M. Pudelko. (2012). “Challenges in International Survey Research: A Review with Illustrations and Suggested Solutions for Best Practice” in European Journal of International Management. Available online also at: https://harzing.com/download/intres.pdf [accessed in Manila, the Philippines: January 15, 2019].

Hall, J. (1976). Conflict Management Survey: A Survey of One’s Characteristic Reaction to and Handling Conflict between Himself and Others. The Woodlands, Texas: Telemetrics International, firstly published in 1969.

Hartwick, Jon & Henri Barki. (2002). “Conceptualizing the Construct of Interpersonal Conflict” in Ecole des Hautes Etudes Commerciales de Montreal. Available online also at: http://expertise.hec.ca/gresi/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/cahier0204.pdf [accessed in Manila, the Philippines: January 8, 2019].

HBES [Harvard Business Essentials Series]. (2003). Negotiation. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.

Illes, Eva. (2001). “The Definition of Context and its Implications for Language Teaching”. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis. UK [United of Kingdom]: Institute of Education, University of London. Available online also at: http://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/10018870/7/Illes%2C%20Eva_Redacted.pdf [accessed in Manila, the Philippines: January 15, 2019].

Irwin, David. (2001). Effective Business Communications. New York: Thorogood Publishing.

Jannat, Umma Khatuna. (2007). “Recuirement Elicitation: Identifying the Conflict between Requirement Analyst and Client”. Available online at: https://www.academia.edu/9960169/Requirement_Elicitation_Identifying_the_Conflict_between_Requirement_Analyst_and_Client [accessed in Manila, the Philippines: January 8, 2019].

Jarboe, S.C. & H.R. Witteman. (1996). “Intragroup Conflict Management in Task-Oriented Groups: The Influence of Problem Sources and Problem Analysis” in Small Group Research, Volume 27, pp.316-338.

Jeong, Ho-Won. (2008). Understanding Conflict and Conflict Analysis. London: SAGE Publications, Ltd. Available online also at: https://is.muni.cz/el/1423/podzim2015/MVZ208/um/59326109/Ho-Won_Jeong_Understanding_Conflict_and_Conflict_Analysis_2008.pdf [accessed in Manila, the Philippines: January 8, 2019].

Jocano, F.L. (1999). Management by Culture. Manila: Punlad.

Katz, N.H. & J.W. Lawyer. (1992). Communication and Conflict Resolution Skills. USA [United States of America]: Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company.

Kilmann, Ralph H. & Kenneth W. Thomas. (1974). Conflict Mode Instrument. South Africa: Community Publishing Programme.

Kinicki, A. & R. Kreitner. (2008). Organizational Behavior: Key Concepts, Skills & Best Practices. New York: The McGraw-Hill Companies.

Lang, M. (2009). “Conflict Management: A Gap in Business Education Curricula” in Journal of Education for Business, Volume 84(4), pp.240-245.

Langlois, R.N. (1982). Systems Theory: Knowledge and the Social Sciences. New York: SUNY [State University of New York] Press.

Lewicki, R.J., B. Barry & D.M. Saunders. (2007). Negotiation: Readings, Exercises, and Cases. New York: McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 5th edition.

Lewins, R. (2001). “Consensus Building and Natural Resource Management: A Review” in CEMARE Research Paper, No.157, pp.1-47.

Lorena, Nicole A. & Abelardo M. Torio. (2017). “The Road to Free Education” in The Guidon Website, on March. Available online also at: www.theguidon.com/1112/main/2017/05/road-free-education [accessed in Manila, the Philippines: January 8, 2019].

Luhmann, N. (1995). Social Systems. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

Lynch, J. (1998). “CCRA: Contemporary Conflict Resolution Approaches in J. Conbere Theory Building for Conflict Management System Design” in Conflict Resolution Quarterly, Volume 19(2), pp.215-236.

Mabunga, R.A.S. & M.E.M. Mabunga. (2014). “Conflict Management Styles of College Students at the Philippine Normal University” in The Normal Lights: Journal of Teacher Education, Volume 8(2), pp.113-133.

Malolos, Cecilia F. & Tereso S. Tullao, Jr. (2018). “Role of the Commission on Higher Education in Promoting Quality Education” in Working Paper Series, No.01-046, pp.1-22.

Marshall, C. & G.B. Rossman. (2006). Designing Qualitative Research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc., 4th edition.

Millett, Bruce. (1998). “Understanding Organizations: The Dominance of Systems Theory” in International Journal of Organisational Behaviour, Volume 1(1), pp.1-12. Available online also at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/228691593_Understanding_organisations_the_dominance_of_systems_theory [accessed in Manila, the Philippines: January 8, 2019].

Moore, C.W. (2003). The Mediation Process: Practical Strategies for Resolving Conflict. San Francisco, CA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Morillo, H.M., J.J. Capuno & A.M. Mendoza, Jr. (2013). “Views and Values on Family among Filipinos: An Empirical Exploration” in Asian Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 41, pp.5-28. Available online also at: https://www.academia.edu/24257256/Views_and_Values_on_Family_among_Filipinos_An_Empirical_Exploration [accessed in Manila, the Philippines: January 15, 2019].

NEDA [National Economic and Development Authority]. (2014). Philippine Development Plan, 2011-2016: Midterm Update. Pasig City: National Economic and Development Authority. Available online also at: http://www.neda.gov.ph/wp-content/uploads/2014/08/NEDA-PDP-2011-2016-Midterm-Update+Errata2.pdf [accessed in Manila, the Philippines: January 8, 2019].

Noussia, Kyriaki. (2010). “The History, Importance, and Modern Use of Arbitration” in Confidentiality in International Commercial Arbitration. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, pp.11-17.

Omisore, B.O. & A.R. Abiodun. (2014). “Organizational Conflicts: Causes, Effects, and Remedies” in International Journal of Academic Research in Economics and Management Sciences, Vol.3, No.6 [November]. Available online also at: http://hrmars.com/hrmars_papers/Organizational_Conflicts_Causes,_Effects_and_Remedies.pdf [accessed in Manila, the Philippines: January 15, 2019].

Orbeta Jr., Aniceto C., Kathrina G. Gonzales & Sol Francesca S. Cortes. (2016). “Are Higher Education Institutions Responsive to Changes in the Labor Market?” in PIDS Discussion Paper Series, No.08. Available online also at: https://pidswebs.pids.gov.ph/CDN/PUBLICATIONS/pidsdps1608_rev.pdf [accessed in Manila, the Philippines: January 8, 2019].

Overton, A.R. & A.C. Lowry. (2013). “Conflict Management: Difficult Conversations with Difficult People” in Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgey, Volume 26(4), December, pp.259-264. Available online also at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3835442/ [accessed in Manila, the Philippines: January 15, 2019].

Pace, W.R. (1983). Organizational Communication. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Pauwels, Luc. (2012). “A Multimodal Framework for Analyzing Websites as Cultural Expressions” in Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, Volume 17, Issue 3, 1 April 2012, Pages 247–265. Available online also at: https://academic.oup.com/jcmc/article/17/3/247/4067660 [accessed in Manila, the Philippines: January 15, 2019].

Pfetch, F. (2007). Negotiating Political Conflicts. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Proszowska, A. (2015). “The Impact of the Exhibitor’s Cultural Context on the Use of Forms of Communication in the Management Process of the Exhibitor’s Participation in Fairs” in Jagiellonian Journal of Management, Volume 2, pp.119-130.

Putnam, L.L. & M.S. Poole. (1987). “Conflict and Negotiation” in F.M. Jablin et al. [eds]. Handbook of Organizational Communication: An Interdisciplinary Perspective. Newbury Park, CA: Sage, pp.549-599.

Rahim, M. Afzalur. (2001). Managing Conflict in Organizations. London: Quorum Books, 3rd edition. Available online also at: http://www.untag-smd.ac.id/files/Perpustakaan_Digital_1/CONFLICT%20MANAGEMENT [accessed in Manila, the Philippines: January 15, 2019].

Raiffa, Howard. (2002). “Contributions of Applied Systems Analysis to International Negotiation” in Victor A. Kremenyuk [ed]. International Negotiation: Analysis, Approaches, Issues. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass,. 2nd edition.

Roloff, M.E. (1987). The Handbook of Communication Science. Newbury Park, CA: SAGE Publication.

Rowe, M. (1997). “Dispute Resolution in Non-Union Environment in J. Conbere Theory Building for Conflict Management System Design” in Conflict Resolution Quarterly, Volume 19(2), pp.215-236.

Santiago III, Eugenio Ferrer. (2018). “Corruption Prevention in State Colleges and Universities” in KnE Social Sciences: 4th International Research Conference on Higher Education, pp.446-468. Available online also at: https://knepublishing.com/index.php/Kne-Social/article/view/2398/5274 [accessed in Manila, the Philippines: January 8, 2019].

Schwarz, R.M. (2002). The Skilled Facilitator. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Scott, W. Richard & Gerald F. Davis. (2016). Organizations and Organizing: Rational, Natural, and Open System Perspectives. London and New York: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group, first published 2007.

Silverman, D. (1971). The Theory of Organizations. New York: Basic Books.

Slaikeu, K. & R. Hasson. (2001). “Controlling the Costs of Conflict in J. Conbere Theory Building for Conflict Management System Design” in Conflict Resolution Quarterly, Volume 19(2), pp.215-236.

Sparks, Dennis. (2007). Leading for Results: Transforming Teaching, Learning, and Relationships in Schools. Thousand Oaks, California: A Sage Publications Company, second edition.

Spaho, K. (2013). “Organizational Communication and Conflict Management” in Management, Vol.18(1), pp.103-118.

Spencer-Oatey, H. (2012). “What is Culture? A Compilation of Quotations” in Global PAD Core Concepts. Available online also at: https://warwick.ac.uk/fac/soc/al/globalpad/openhouse/interculturalskills/global_pad_-_what_is_culture.pdf [accessed in Manila, the Philippines: January 15, 2019].

SPIDR [Society of Professionals in Dispute Resolution]. (1999). Report on Competencies in Conflict Management Systems Design. Washington, DC: Association for Conflict Resolution.

Stipanowich, T.J. & J.R. Lamare. (2012). “Living with ADR: Evolving Perceptions and Use of Mediation, Arbitration, and Conflict Management in Fortune 1,000 Corporations” in Fortune 1,000 Survey TJS Revised, on February 19. Available online also at: https://www.mdcourts.gov/sites/default/files/import/macro/pdfs/reports/cornellstudy2013.pdf [accessed in Manila, the Philippines: January 15, 2019].

Thakore, Digvijaysinh. (2013). “Conflict and Conflict Management” in IOSR Journal of Business and Management (IOSR-JBM), Volume 8, Issue 6 [March – April], pp.07-16. Available online also at: http://www.iosrjournals.org/iosr-jbm/papers/Vol8-issue6/B0860716.pdf?id=5165 [accessed in Manila, the Philippines: January 8, 2019].

Thomas, Kenneth W. & Ralph H. Kilmann. (2017). “Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Mode Instrument: Profile and Interpretive Report”. A Report prepared for PAT Sample, on April 7, pp.1-11.

Toh, S.H. & V. Cawagas. (1987). Peace Education: A Framework for the Philippines. Quezon City, Philippines: Phoenix Publishing House, Inc.

Ury, W.L., J.M. Brett & S. Goldberg. (1993). Getting Disputes Resolved: Designing Systems to Cut the Costs of Conflict. Cambridge, Mass: The Program on Negotiation at Harvard Law School.

Wealleans, David. (2017). The Organizational Measurement Manual. New York: Routledge.

Winslade, J. & G. Monk. (2001). Narrative Mediation: A New Approach to Conflict Resolution. San Francisco, CA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Wurtz, Elizabeth. (2006). “Intercultural Communication on Web sites: A Cross‐Cultural Analysis of Web sites from High‐Context Cultures and Low‐Context Cultures” in Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, Issue of August. Available online also at: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/j.1083-6101.2006.tb00313.x [accessed in Manila, the Philippines: January 15, 2019].

Yirik, S., B.I. Yildirim & N. Cetinkaya. (2015). “A Study on Conflict Management and Conflict Resolution in Hospitality Organizations” in International Journal of Arts & Sciences, Volume 08(08), pp.77–88. Available online also at: http://universitypublications.net/ijas/0808/pdf/F5N134.pdf [accessed in Manila, the Philippines: January 15, 2019].

Zhang, Y.B., J. Harwood & M.L. Hummert. (2005). “Perceptions of Conflict Management Styles in Chinese Intergenerational Dyads” in Communication Monographs, Volume 72(1), March. Available online also at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/47453477_Perceptions_of_Conflict_Management_Styles_in_Chinese_Intergenerational_Dyads [accessed in Manila, the Philippines: January 22, 2019].




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17509/mimbardik.v4i1.16967

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

MIMBAR PENDIDIKAN: Jurnal Indonesia untuk Kajian Pendidikan, is published by UPI Press in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia.

 Lisensi Creative Commons

MIMBAR PENDIDIKAN: Jurnal Indonesia untuk Kajian Pendidikan of Indonesia University of Education disebarluaskan di bawah Lisensi Creative Commons Atribusi-BerbagiSerupa 4.0 Internasional.
Berdasarkan ciptaan pada http://ejournal.upi.edu/index.php/mimbardik/.

  View My Stats