The Effect of Learning Model and Intelligence Quotient on Critical Thinking and Handball Games Performance

Tite Juliantine, Fitriane Arifin


Teaching physical education in schools today is still based on the delivery of the games  movement and sports information, so that the cognitive ability, reflective-critical thinking skills, and students’ performance have not fully developed yet. The purpose of this study was to discover the reflective cognitive development of critical thinking abilities and the performance in playing handball in physical education classes. Its used 2x2 factorial design conducted on 74 students of grade Sernior High School in Bandung. Instrument used to measure the ability of critical thinking was the test to measure the critical thinking ability, while GPAI was used to measure games performance. The study shows that there is a significant effect of the critical thinking skills inquiry learning model treatment, whereas the direct treatment shows that there is a significant influence on the performance in playing handball. The results also discover the interaction in intelligence quotient and learning model and both of the models have influence on the students who have high and low intelligence.




Pengajaran pendidikan jasmani di sekolah masih berlandaskan pada penyampaian informasi gerak permainan atau olahraga semata, sehingga kemampuan kognitif reflektif-kemampuan berpikir kritis  dan penampilan bermain  siswa belum berkembang. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menelurusi kebenaran pengembangan kognitif reflektif-kemampuan berpikir kritis dan penampilan bermain bola tangan dalam pembelajaran pendidikan jasmani.Penelitian ini menggunakan desain faktorial  2x2 dilakukan pada 74 orang siswa kelas SMA di Bandung.  Instrument yang digunakan untuk mengukur kemampuan berpikir kritis yaitu dengan tes kemampuan berpikir kritis sedangkan GPAI untuk mengukur keterampilan bermain. Hasil penelitian menyimpulkan bahwa terdapat pengaruh signifikan kemampuan berpikir kritis dari perlakuan model pembelajaran  inkuiri, sedangkan pada perlakuan direct teaching  menyatakan pula terdapat pengaruh signifikan penampilan bermain bola tangan. Hasil penelitian selanjutnya model pembelajaran dengan intelligence quotient terdapat interaksi dan kedua model tersebut mempengaruhi pada tingkat siswa yang memiliki intelligence tinggi daan rendah.



Critical Thinking, Handball, Intelligence Quotient, Learning Model

Full Text:



AAbdullah, B., Badiei, M., Sulaiman, T., & Baki, R. (2014). Enhance Critical Thinking in Physical Education among Malaysian University Students, 4(5), 198–203.

Alameddine, M. M., & Ahwal, H. W. (2016). Inquiry Based Teaching in Literature Classrooms. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 232(April), 332–337.

Hannaford, C. (2015). Smart Moves. Learning, 25(3), 66–68. Retrieved from

Hemphill, M. A., R Richards, K. A., Gaudreault, K. L., & Templin, T. J. (2015). Pre-service teacher perspectives of case-based learning in physical education teacher education. European Physical Education Review, 21(4), 432–450.

Huang, M.-Y., Tu, H.-Y., Wang, W.-Y., Chen, J.-F., Yu, Y.-T., & Chou, C.-C. (2017). Effects of cooperative learning and concept mapping intervention on critical thinking and basketball skills in elementary school. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 23, 207–216.

Jayantilal, K., & O’Leary, N. (2017). (Reinforcing) factors influencing a physical education teacher’s use of the direct instruction model teaching games. European Physical Education Review, 23(4), 392–411.

Ostergaard, L. D. (2016). Inquiry-based Learning Approach in Physical Education: Stimulating and Engaging Students in Physical and Cognitive Learning. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 3084(March), 6–14.

Rymarz, R. M. (2013). Direct instruction as a pedagogical tool in religious education. British Journal of Religious Education, 35(3), 326–341.

Sibley, B. A., & Etnier, J. L. (2003). The relationship between physical activity and cognition in children: a meta-analysis. Pediatric exercise science, 15(3), 243-256.

Sternberg, R. J. (2018). Intelligence in Humans. Reference Module in Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Psychology. Elsevier.



  • There are currently no refbacks.


                                                                Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.                                                                               


View My Stats