Analisis Efisiensi dan Produktivitas Bank Umum Konvensional di Indonesia

Nugraha Nugraha, Umar Faruk, Toni Heryana


Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis efisiensi dan produktivitas bank umum konvensional di Indonesia. Analisis efisiensi menggunakan pendekatan Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) dan analisis produktivitas menggunakan Malmquist Productivity Index (MPI). Hasil analisis terhadap 106 bank umum konvensional yang terbagi atas 5 bank kategori BUKU IV, 12 bank kategori BUKU III, 33 bank kategori BUKU II, dan 56 bank kategori BUKU I diperoleh hasil, pertama: tingkat efisiensi bank umum konvensional di Indonesia selama tahun 2006 – 2015 menunjukkan tingkat efisiensi yang relatif lambat dan rendah; kedua: produktivitas bank umum konvensional rata – rata rendah dengan pertumbuhan produktivitas selama 2010 – 2015 hanya 0,5 persen; Ketiga: sebagian besar bank umum konvensional berada pada kuadran 4 yakni memiliki tingkat efisiensi dan produktivitas yang relatif rendah atau memiliki kinerja yang buruk (poor performance). Disusul dengan bank yang masuk pada kuadran 3 yakni bank dengan tingkat efisiensi yang rendah namun di sisi lain memiliki tingkat pertumbuhan produktivitas tinggi atau memiliki kinerja yang wajar (fair performance).

Kata Kunci   : Efisiensi Bank, Produktivitas Bank, Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), Malmquist Productivity Index (MPI).



This study aims to analyze the efficiency and productivity of conventional commercial banks in Indonesia. Efficiency analysis uses the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) approach and productivity analysis using the Malmquist Productivity Index (MPI). The results of the analysis of 106 conventional commercial banks divided into 5 banks in BUKU IV category, 12 banks in BUKU III category, 33 banks in BUKU II category, and 56 BUKU I category banks obtained the first, the efficiency level of conventional commercial banks in Indonesia during 2006 - 2015 shows a relatively slow and low level of efficiency; second: the average productivity of conventional commercial banks with productivity growth during 2010 - 2015 was only 0.5 percent; Third: most conventional commercial banks are in quadrant 4, which has a relatively low level of efficiency and productivity or has poor performance. Followed by banks in the 3rd quadrant, namely banks with a low level of efficiency but on the other hand have a high level of productivity growth or have a fair performance.

Keyword  : Bank Efficiency, Bank Productivity, Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), Malmquist Productivity Index (MPI).


Efisiensi Bank, Produktivitas Bank, Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), Malmquist Productivity Index (MPI).

Full Text:



Aigner, D.J. (1977). “Formulation and Estimation of Stochastic Frontier Production Function Models”. Journal of Econometrics. 6, (1), 21-37.

Avenzora, Ahmad dan Moeis, J.P. (2008). “Analisis Produktivitas dan Efisiensi Industri Tekstil dan Produk Tekstil di Indonesia Tahun 2002-2004”. Parallel Session IV B : Industri Manufaktur Hotel Nikko, Jakarta.

Barry et al. (2010). “Ownership Structure and Bank Efficiency in Six Asian Countries”. Philppine Management Review (special issue). 18, 19-35.

Berger, A.N, & Humphrey, D.B. (1991). “The Dominance of Inefficiency Over Scale and Product Mix Economies in Banking”. Journal of Monetary Economics. 28, 117-148.

Berger, A.N, & Humphrey, D.B. (1992). “Measurement and Efficiency Issues in Commercials Banking”. National Bureau of Economic Research, University of Chicago Press, Chicago. II, 245-279.

Berger, A.N. & Mester, L.J. (1997). “Inside the Black box: What Explains Differences in the Efficiency of Financial Institutions?”. Journal of Banking and Finance, 21, 895-947.

Berg, S.A. et al. (1992). “Malmquist Indeces of Productivity Growth During the Deregulation of Norwegian Banking 1980 – 89”. Scandanavian Journal of Economics. 94, 211-228.

Casu, B dan Molyneux, P. (2003). “A Comparative Study of Efficiency in European Banking”. Applied Economics. 35, 1865-1876.

Caves, D., Christensen, L. and Diewert, W. (1982). “The Economic Theory of Index Number and The Measurement of Input, Output, and Productivity”. Econometrica. 50, (6), 1393-1414.

Charnes, A et al. (1978). “Measuring the Efficiency of Decision Making Units”. European Journal of Operation Research. 2, (6), 429-444.

Christopher, W.F. (1993). Three Steps For Improving Productivity/Quality Measurement and Performance In: Handbook for Productivity Measurement and Improvement, 6-2. Portland, Oregon Productivity Press.

Coelli, et al. (1996). A Guide to DEAP Version 2.1 : A Data Envelopment Analysis (Computer) Program”. CEPA Working Paper 96/08. Centre for Efficiency and Productivity Analysis, University of New England. Armidale.

Deprins, D. et al. (1984). Measuring Labour Efficiency in Post Offices. In Marchand, M. et al. The Performance of Public Enterprises; Concepts and Measurements. Holland, Amsterdam.

Jaelani (2015) “Studi Efisiensi Bank Umum di Indonesia Tahun 2002-2013 (Komparasi Faktor-faktor Penjelas Efisiensi Antara Bank Umum Konvensional dengan Bank umum Syariah)”. Disertasi, Program studi Doktor Ilmu Manajemen Sekolah Pascasarjana. Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia.

Karim, M.Z.A. (2001). “Comparative Bank Efficiency Across Select ASEAN Countries”. ASEAN Economics Bulletin, 18, 289-304.

Kourouche, Khaled (2008). Measuring Efficiency and Productivity in the Australian Banking Sector. School of Economics and Finance, University of Western, Sydney, Australia.

Meusen, W dan Van Den Broeck, J. (1977). “Efficiency Estimation From Cobb-Douglas Production Function With Compossed Error”. International Economic Review. 18, (2), 435-444.

Sharma, et al. (2012). Efficiency and Productivity of Indian Bank: An Application of Data Envelopment Analysis and Tobit Regression, National Conference on Emerging Challenges for Sustainable Business 2012, ISBN – 978 – 93-81583-46-3, 81-90.

Sharma, D. (2013). “Efficiency and Productivity of Banking Sector A Critical Analysis of Literature and Design of Conceptual Model”. Journal of Emerald Group publishing Limited. 5, (2), 195-224.

Stiglitz, J.E. 1991. “The Invisible Hand and Modern Welfare Economics”, Working Paper No. 3641 National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, 1-48.

Tahir, et al. (2012). “The Determinants of Bank Cost Inefficiency in ASEAN Banking (Penentu Ketidakcekapan Kos Bank Dalam Perbankan di ASEAN”. Jurnal Pengurusan. 36, 69-76.

Umar Faruk, Disman dan Nugraha (2017). “Efficiency and Productivity Growth Analysis of the Islamic Banking in Indonesia: Data Envelopment Analysis and Malmquist Productivity Index Approach”. 1st International Conference on Islamic Economics, Business, and Philanthropy (ICIEBP 2017), pages 213-218

Wheelock, D.C. dan Wilson, P.W. (1999). “Technical Progress, Inefficiency, and Productivity Change in US Banking 1984-1993”. Journal of Money, Credit and Banking. 31, 212-234.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License

Jurnal Riset Akuntansi dan Keuangan  is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

View My Stats