AR. Kurniawan, Andang Rohendi, Ucu Abdul Ropi, Miftachul Chamim


Outdoor sports activities require excellent skills in situations of high physical stress, so physical condition plays a vital role in supporting the success of mountaineering. Objectives; This study aims to test the validity and reliability of the physical fitness and motor fitness components as a reference for determining the optimal physical performance of mountain climbers. Methods; The method used is Research and Development, the participants this 7 mountaineers on 18 peaks for 12 days at an altitude of 3000 MDPL in Indonesia. The sampling technique used was total sampling. The analysis used is content validity and construct validity. Data analysis was carried out, namely the first to sixth steps, namely the stage of developing standard indicators for physical abilities components in terms of physical fitness and motor fitness. The seventh to tenth steps are the instrument development stage. The small-scale test was used as a product development trial to test the validity and reliability of the test instrument. A large-scale test to develop norms and standards for assessing mountaineer's physical abilities test instruments. Result; The components of developing the physical abilities test for mountaineers include physical fitness factors, including cardiorespiratory endurance fitness (Balke test), muscular strength and power (jump decathlon test), muscular endurance (wall squat test), flexibility (Static Flexibility Test – Hip and Trunk), body composition (BMI and % fat content). Motor fitness factors include speed (running 35 m speed test), agility (hexagonal obstacle test), coordination (Hand and eye coordination test), balance (standing stroke test), and reaction time (whole-body reaction). Conclusion; the physical abilities component of mountaineers has a substantial correlation value, and the test instrument can be used as an evaluation method to measure mountaineers' physical and motor fitness.


Physical abilities, motor fitness, physical fitness, mountaineers

Full Text:



Apollo, Michal. 2017. “The True Accessibility of Mountaineering: The Case of the High Himalaya.” Journal of Outdoor Recreation and Tourism 17 (December 2016): 29–43.

Apollo, Michal, and Viacheslav Andreychouk. 2020. “Mountaineering and the Natural Environment in Developing Countries: An Insight to a Comprehensive Approach.” International Journal of Environmental Studies 77 (6): 942–53.

Beedie, Paul, and Simon Hudson. 2003. “Emergence of Mountain-Based Adventure Tourism.” Annals of Tourism Research 30 (3): 625–43.

Blake, Holly, Natalia Stanulewicz, and Francesca McGill. 2017. “Predictors of Physical Activity and Barriers to Exercise in Nursing and Medical Students.” Journal of Advanced Nursing 73 (4): 917–29.

Chamim, Miftachul, Nurlan Kusmaedi, Mulyana, and Asep Ridwan Kurniawan. 2022. “Components of Physical Abilities on a Fast Climb 18 Peaks 12 Days at Altitudes Above 3000 MDPL.” Competitor: Jurnal Pendidikan Kepelatihan Olahraga 14 (1): 40–50.

Cooke, Carlton, Dave Bunting, and John O Hara. 2010. Mountaineering: Training and Preparation.

Fraenkel, Jack R, Nroman. E Wallen, and Helen H Hyun. 2012. How to Design And Evaluate Research In Education 8th Edition. 8th ed. Americas, New York, NY 10020: McGraw-Hill, a business unit of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Gilchrist, Paul. 2008. “Heroic Leadership , Mountain Adventure and Englishness : John Hunt and Chris Bonington Compared.” Midrash Publishing, 1–19.

Jaiswal, Ajeet. 2018. “Pysical Performance Test,” no. October: 1–13.

Mackenzie, Brian. 2005a. Performance Evaluation Tests. Edited by Jonathan Pye. British Library London: Electric Word plc.

———. 2005b. The Nine Key Elements of Fitness. London.

Morrow, James R., Dale P. Mood, and James G. Disch. 2015. Measurement and Evaluation in Human Performance. 5th ed. Champaign, United States: Human Kinetics.

Rahman, Faisal Adam, Sugiyanto Sugiyanto, and Agus Kristiyanto. 2018. “Benefits Recreational Sports of Mountain Climbing for Physical Health, Psychology, Social, and Spiritual.” International Journal of Multicultural and Multireligious Understanding 5 (5): 43.

Rokowski, Robert, Marcin Maciejczyk, Zbigniew Szygula, and Nowy Sacz. 2017. “Body Build , Strength and Endurance Performance in Elite Sport and Alpine Climbers – a Pilot Study.” Journal of Kinesiology and Exercise Sciences 79 (27): 31–39.

Sidik, Dikdik Zafar, P L Pesurnay, and L Afari. 2019. “Pelatihan Kondisi Fisik.” Bandung: PT. Remaja Rosdakarya.

Sugiyono, Dr. 2013. “Metode Penelitian Pendidikan Pendekatan Kuantitatif, Kualitatif Dan R&D.”

Sukarmin, Yustinus. 2016. “Persiapan Fisik Bagi Pendaki Gunung: Sebuah Alternatif Pencegahan Kecelakaan.” Cakrawala Pendidikan 1 (1): 91–102.

Winter, Edward M., Andrew M. Jones, R.C. Richard Davison, Paul D. Bromley, and Thomas H. Mercer. 2016. Sport and Exercise Physiology Testing Guidelines. Sport and Exercise Physiology Testing Guidelines.


  • There are currently no refbacks.