Factors That Influence Financial Statement Fraud Using The Fraud Diamond Model

Ady Setyo Nugroho


This study aims to obtain an empirical evidence about detection of the financial statement fraud accordance with the fraud diamond theory perspective that developed by Wolfe and Hermanson (2004). Proxy of independent variable that is the fraud diamond theory with four fraud risk factor is the factor of pressure proxied by leverage ratio, while the factor of opportunity was proxied by asset composition ratio, the factor of rationalization was proxied by audit quality, and the factor of capability proxied by percentage of director with accounting and finance education background, respectively. The samples that used in this study were 534 manufacturing companies that were listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX) in the period of 2013 until 2017. Secondary data were used in the form of annual reports of every companies. Hypothesis testing in this study was conducted by using logistic regression analyses with SPSS 20 software. The results of this study showed that variables such as pressure (proxied by leverage ratio), opportunity (proxied by asset composition ratio), and rationalization (proxied by audit quality) could be used to predict the financial statement fraud.


Accounting, The Fraud Diamond Theory, Financial Statement Fraud

Full Text:



Abdullahi, R., dan Mansor, N. 2015. “Fraud Triangle Theory and Fraud Diamond Theory. Understanding the Convergent and Divergent for Future Research.” International Journal of Academic Research in Accounting, Finance, And Management Sciences, Vol. 5, No. 4, pp. 38-45

Albrecht, W., Steve, C.M., dan Chad, A. 2012. Fraud Examination. Mason: Cengage Learning

Amara, I., Anis, B. A., dan Anis. J. 2013. “Detection of Fraud in Financial Statements: French Companies as a Case Study.” International Journal of Academic Research in Accounting, Finance and Management Sciences, Vol.3, No.3, pp.40-51

Association of Certified Fraud Examiner. 2017. Fraud Examiners Manual 2017 International Edition. Texas: The Association of Certified Fraud Examiner

Association of Certified Fraud Examiner. 2020. Report To The Nation: 2020 Global Study On Occupational Fraud and Abuse. Austin: The Association of Certified Fraud Examiner

Astuti, S., Zuhrohtun, dan Kusharyanti. 2015. “Fraudulent Financial Reporting in Public Companies in Indonesia: An Analysis of Fraud Triangle and Responsibilities of Auditors.” Journal of Economics, Business, and Accountancy Ventura, Vol.18, No.1, pp.283.290

Beneish, M. D. 1999. “The Detection of Earnings Manipulation.” Financial Analysts Journal

Cressey, D. R. 1953. “The Criminal Violation of Financial Trust.” American Sociological Review, pp.738-743

Daboub, A., J., A. M. A. Rasheed., R. L. Priem, dan D. A. Gray. 1995. “Top Management Team Characteristics and Corporate Illegal Activity.” Academy of Management Review, Vol.20, No.1, pp.138-170

Dalnial, H., A. Kamaluddin, dan Z. M. Sanusi. 2014. “Accountability in Financial Reporting: Detecting Fraudulent Firms.” Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, Vol.145, pp.61-69

Fajri, S. N. 2019. “The Effect of Financial Stability, External Pressure, Persona Financial Need, Financial Targets, Ineffective Monitoring and Audit Quality on Detecting Fraud Financial Statement in Perspective of Fraud Triangle.” Jurnal Ilmiah Ekonomi Bisnis, Vol. 23, No. 2

Fitri, F.A., Syukur, M., dan Justisa, G. 2019. “Do the Fraud Triangle Components Motivate Fraud in Indonesia?” Australasian Accounting, Business and Finance Journal, pp. 63-72

Geralyi, M., S., A. M. Yanesari, dan A. R. Ma’atoofi. 2011. “Impact of Audit Quality on Earnings Management: Evidence from Iran.” International Research Journal of Finance and Economics, EuroJournals Publishing, Inc.

Ghozali, I. 2018. Aplikasi Analisis Multivariate Dengan Program IBM SPSS 25 edisi 9. Semarang: Badan Penerbit Universitas Diponegoro

Hermawati, L., dan Murtanto. 2019. “The Influence of Fraud Triangle Upon the Existence of Financial Statement Fraud.” Indonesian Management and Accounting Research, Vol. 18, No. 2

Iswati, D. 2017. “The Effect of Internal Financial Indicatiors on the Tendency of Accounting Fraud (A Case of Companies Listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange).” Jurnal Dinamika Akuntansi, Vol.9, No.2, pp.-123-131

Koch-Bayram, I. F., dan Wernicke, G. 2018. “Drilled to Obey? Ex-Military CEOs and Financial Misconduct.” Strategic Management Journal, Vol. 39, Issue 11

Lennox, C. dan J. Pittman. 2010. “Auditing the Auditors: Evidence on the Recent Reforms to the External Monitoring of Audit Firms.” Journal of Accounting and Economics, pp.84-103

Manurung, Daniel., T., H. dan A. L. Hardika. 2015. “Analysis of Factors that Influence Financial Statement Fraud in the Perspective Fraud Diamond: Empirical Study on Banking Companies Listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange Year 2012 to 2014.” International Conference On Accounting Studies, 17-20 Agustus, Johor Baru, Johor, Malaysia.

Mardiani, S., E. Sukarmanto Th, dan M. Maemunah. 2017. “Pengaruh Fraud Diamond Terhadap Pendeteksian Financial Statement Fraud Dengan Komite Audit Sebagai Variabel Moderasi (Pada Perusahaan Sub Sektor Farmasi Yang Terdaftar Di Bursa Efek Indonesia).” Prosiding Akuntansi, Vol.3, No.2, pp.476-484

Meryani, A. 2010. “Grup Bakrie Harusnya Dipidanakan!” https://economy.okezone.com/read/2010/11/04/278/389702/grup-bakrie-harusnya-dipidanakan, diakses 2018.

Nakashima, M. 2017. “Can The Fraud Triangle Predict Accounting Fraud?: Evidence from Japan.” rieb.kobe-u.ac.jp

Nugraheni, N. K. dan H. Triatmoko. 2017. “Analisis Faktor-Faktor Yang Mempengaruhi Terjadinya Financial Statement Fraud: Perspektif Diamond Fraud Theory.” Jurnal Akuntansi dan Auditing, Vol.14, No.2, pp.118-143

Omar, N., Koya, R. K., Sanusi, Z. M., dan Shafie, N. A. 2014. “Financial Statement Fraud: A Case Examination Using Beneish Model and Ratio Analysis.” International Journal of Trade, Economics and Finance, Vol. 5, No. 2

Pamungkas, I. D. 2018. “A Pilot Study of Corporate Governance and Accounting Fraud: The Fraud Diamond Model.” Journal of Business and Retail Management, Vol.12, No.2, pp.253-261

Rachman, F. F. 2018. “Bank Bukopin Permak Laporan Keuangan, Ini Kata BI dan OJK” https://finance.detik.com/moneter/d-3994551/bank-bukopin-permak-laporan-keuangan-ini-kata-bi-dan-ojk, diakses 14 Desember 2018.

Rukmana, H. S. 2018. “Pentagon Fraud Affect on Financial Statement Fraud and Firm Value Evidence in Indonesia.” South East Asia Journal of Contemporary Business, Economics and Law, Vol. 16, Issue 5, pp. 118-122

Santosa, U. A. 2010. “Sanksi Rp 3 Miliar Untuk Tiga Perusahaan Grup Bakrie” https://investasi.kontan.co.id/news/sanksi-rp-3-miliar-untuk-tiga-perusahaan-grup-bakrie-1, diakses 4 November 2019.

Santoso, N. T. dan Surenggono. 2018. “Predicting Financial Statement Fraud with Fraud Diamond Model of Manufacturing Companies Listed in Indonesia”. State-of-the-Art Theories and Empirical Evidence, pp.151-163

Singleton, T. W. dan A. J. Singleton. 2010. Fraud Auditing and Forensic Accounting. 4th ed. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons

Troy, C., Ken, G. S., dan Madeline, A. D. 2011. “CEO Demographics and Accounting Fraud: Who is More Likely to Rationalize Illegal Acts?” Strategic Organization, pp.259-282

Wahyuni, dan G. S. Budiwitjaksono. 2017. “Fraud Triangle Sebagai Pendeteksian Kecurangan Laporan Keuangan.” Jurnal Akuntansi, Vol.XXI, No.01, pp.47-61

Wolfe, D. T. dan D. R. Hermanson. 2004. “The Fraud Diamond: Considering the Four Elements of Fraud.” The CPA Journal, pp.38-42

Zack, G. M. 2013. Strategies for Detection and Investigation. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons Inc

DOI: https://doi.org/10.17509/jaset.v14i2.44535


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License

Jurnal ASET (Akuntansi Riset) is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License

View My Stats Visitor