Elementary Students’ Logical-Thinking Ability and Its Relationship with Gender

Henni Riyanti, Putri Dewi Nurhasana


Logical-thinking ability is one of the 21st-century competencies that plays an important role in an individual’s ability to be responsive in acting and taking decisions to solve societal problems. However logical-thinking ability can be different from one to another due to several factors, one of that is gender. This research, therefore, was aimed at identifying the relationship between elementary school students’ logical-thinking ability and gender. 149 students from 5 different elementary schools in Surakarta City, Indonesia, were involved in this research. The research subjects were taken by random sampling technique. The data were tested using the validity and reliability tests of logical thinking, which were then analyzed using a quantitative descriptive technique on SPSS 22 software with the Pearson Correlation test. The results showed that there was a significant relationship between logical-thinking ability and gender seen from the correlation value of the Pearson Correlation test of 0.210 and Sig. of 0.01 < 0.05. Hence, the logical-thinking ability is strongly connected with gender. The result showed that the female students’ logical-thinking ability was better than male students. These results can then be taken into consideration for educators to design appropriate learning so that educators can develop logical thinking skills for both male and female students.


Logical Thinking Ability; Gender; Cognitive Style

Full Text:



Ghozali, I. (2013). Aplikasi analisis multivariate dengan program SPSS. Semarang: Badan Penerbit Universitas Diponegoro.

Gullberg, A., Andersson, K., Danielsson, A., Scantlebury, K., & Hussenius, A. (2017). Pre-service teachers’ views of the child-reproducing or challenging gender stereotypes in science in preschool. Research in Science Education, 48, 1-25. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11165-016-9593-z

Greiff, S., Wüstenberg, S., Molnár, G., Fischer, A., Funke, J., & Csapó, B. (2013). Complex problem solving in educational contexts – Something beyond g: Concept, assessment, measurement invariance, and construct validity. Journal of Educational Psychology, 105(2), 364-379. https://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.1037/a0031856

Jones, M. G., Howe, A. & Rua, M. J. (2000) Gender preferences in students’ experiences, interests, and attitudes toward science and scientists. Science Education, 84(2), 180-192. https://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.1002/(SICI)1098-237X(200003)84:2%3C180::AID-SCE3%3E3.0.CO;2-X

Liu, X. P. (2013). The framework of the system on architectural design logical-thinking and its application. Advanced Materials Research, 671-674, 2268-2277.

Maharani, A., & Laelasari, L. (2017). Experimentation of spices learning strategies with the method of problem-based learning (PBL) to build motivation and the ability to think logically for vocational school students. Infinity: Journal of Mathematics Education, 6(2), 149-156. https://doi.org/10.22460/infinity.v6i2.p149-156

Parmin, P., Sajidan, S., Ashadi, A., Sutikno, S., & Fibriana, F. (2017). Performance assessment of practicum work: Measuring the science student teachers’ logical-thinking abilities. Man in India, 97(13), 141-152.

Pascual-Leone, J. (1969). Cognitive Development and Cognitive Style: A General Psychological Integration [Doctoral dissertation]. York: University of York.

Pezzuti, L., Artistico, D., Chirumbolo, A., Picone, L., & Dowd, S. M. (2014). The relevance of logical thinking and cognitive style to everyday problem solving among older adults. Learning and Individual Differences, 36, 218-223. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2014.07.011

Piaget, J. (1983). Piaget Theory of Cognitive Development. In P. Mussen (ed). Handbook of Child Psychology: 4th Edition, Vol 1. New York: Wiley.

Raiyn, J. (2016). The role of visual learning in improving students’ high-order thinking skills. Journal of Education and Practice, 7(24), 115-121.

Riyanti, H. & Nurhasana, P. D. (2021). Analysis of logical thinking ability in natural science learning using blended learning based on Google Classroom. EduBasic Journal: Jurnal Pendidikan Dasar, 3(1), 29-35. https://doi.org/10.17509/ebj.v3i1.32584

Seyhan, H. G. (2015). The effects of problem solving applications on the development of science process skills, logical-thinking skills and perception on problem solving ability in the science laboratory. Asia-Pacific Forum on Science Learning and Teaching, 16(2), 1-31.

Shubina, I., & Kulakli, A. (2019). Critical thinking, creativity and gender differences for knowledge generation in education. Literacy Information and Computer Education Journal (LICEJ), 10(1), 3086-3093. http://dx.doi.org/10.20533/licej.2040.2589.2019.0405

Stevens, M. (1996). How to be a Better Problem Solver. (Translated by Heri Wahyudi). Jakarta: Media Komputindo.

Sumarmo, U., Hidayat, W., Zulkarnaen, R., Hamidah, H., & Sariningsih, R. (2012). Kemampuan dan disposisi berpikir logis, kritis, dan kreatif matematis: Eksperimen terhadap siswa SMA menggunakan pembelajaran berbasis masalah dan strategi Think-Talk-Write. Jurnal Pengajaran MIPA, 17(1), 17-33. https://doi.org/10.18269/jpmipa.v17i1.36048.g15430

Tobin, K. G., & Capie, W. (1981). The development and validation of a group test of logical thinking. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 41(2), 413-423. https://doi.org/10.1177/001316448104100220

Velmurugan, S., & Saranya, B. (2017). Self-confidence and academic achievement of high school students. Arts & Education International Research Journal, 4(1), 116-118.

Voyer, D., & Voyer, S. D. (2014). Gender differences in scholastic achievement: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 140(4), 1174-1204. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0036620

Wang, M. T. and Degol, J. L. (2017). Gender gap in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM): Current knowledge, implications for practice, policy, and future directions. Educational Psychology Review, 29(1), 119-140. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10648-015-9355-x

DOI: https://doi.org/10.17509/ebj.v4i1.48361


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

This journal is indexed by