Siew Siew Kim, Mariani Md. Nor


To enhance the will and the skills to express thoughts explicitly and effectively in early writing among preschool children, self-regulated learning (SRL) was suggested for preschool children as one of the effective learning approaches. This quasi-experimental study involved seventy-five preschool children (5-6 years old) from two public preschools in Selangor, Malaysia. This study investigated the effects of SRL strategies on early writing self-efficacy and early writing performance among preschool children. Interview data was engaged and supported the quantitative result to obtain a deep insight of the findings. Two-way Repeated Measure ANCOVA was employed and confirmed the effectiveness of self-regulated learning intervention with an interaction effect between the test and group for early writing self-efficacy being statistically significant (F(1, 72) = 12.665; p = 0.001, 2= 0.150), with Cohen’s d = 0.84;  and early writing performance statistically significant (F(1, 72) = 110.801; p < 0.001, 2= 0.606), with Cohen’s d = 2.84. The result also confirmed that self-monitoring and controlling (F (5, 69) = 17.934, p < 0.001), with an adjusted R² = 0.534, was a strong predictor for early writing self-efficacy, and planning and goal setting (F(5, 69) = 12.706, p< 0.001), with an adjusted R² = 0.442, were a strong predictor for early writing performance. Eleven self-regulated learning strategies used emerged from the interviews’ data pertaining to different contexts. According to the participant children, planning and goal setting, self-monitoring, and self-evaluation were the strategies that will assure their writing quality. These responses supported the results produced by the quantitative data. The findings of this research provide a useful insight into early writing and self-regulated learning instructions in the Malaysian preschool context.


early writing; preschool; self-efficacy; self-regulated learning

Full Text:



Abbott, R. D., Berninger, V. W., & Fayol, M. (2010). Longitudinal relationships of levels of language in writing and between writing and reading in grades 1 to 7. Journal of Educational Psychology, 102(2), 281-298.

Anam, S. & Stracke, E. (2016). Language learning strategies of Indonesia primary school students: In relation to self-efficacy beliefs. System 60(2016), 1-10.

Bandura, A. (2012). Social cognitive theory In P. A. M. V. Lange, W. Kruglanski & E. T. H. Thousand (Eds.), Handbook of theories of social psychology (Vol. 1, pp. 349-373). Thousand Oaks, CA.: Sage London.

Bingham, G. E., Quinn, M. F. & Gerde, H. K. (2017). Examining early childhood teachers’ writing practices: Associations between pedagogical supports and children’s writing skills. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 39, 35–46.

Bulut, P. (2017). The effect of primary school students’ writing attitudes and writing self-efficacy beliefs on their summary writing achievement. International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education, 10(2), 281-285.

Costa, L. J., Ahmad, U., Edwards, C., Vanselous, S., Yerby, D.C., & Hooper, S.R. (2017). The Writing Side. In Miller, B., McCardle, P. & Long, R. (Eds). Teaching reading and writing: Improving instruction and student achievement (pp. 21-34), Baltimore, Maryland: Brooke.

Demirtas, V. Y. (2013). Self-regulation strategies of the six-year-old preschool children. International Journal of Academic Research, 5(2), 264-273. doi: 10.7813/2075-4124.2013/5-2/B.42

Dent, A. L., & Koenka, A. C. (2015). The relation between self-regulated learning and achievement across childhood and adolence: A meta-analysis. Educ Psychol Rev., 28, 425–474. doi: 10.1007/s10648-015-9320-8

Diamond, A. (2016). Why improving and assessing executive functions early in life is critical. Executive function in preschool age children: Integrating measurement, neurodevelopment and translational research. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Gerde, H. K., Bingham, G. E., & Pendergast, M.L. (2015). Environmental and teacher supports to writing in classrooms. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 31, 31-46.

Graham, S., Gillespie, A., & McKeown, D. (2013). Writing: Importance, development, and instruction. Reading and Writing, 26(1), 1-15.

Hall, A. H., Simpson, A., Guo, Y., & Wang, S. (2015). Examining the effects of preschool writing instruction on emergent literacy skills: A systematic review of the literature. Literacy Research and Instruction, 54(2), 115-134.

Hayes, J. R., & Olinghouse, N. G. (2015). Can cognitive writing models inform the design of the common core state standards? The Elementary School Journal, 115(4), 480-497.

Hutchinson, L. R. (2013). Young children's engagement in self-regulation at school. University of British Columbia.

Jalaluddin, I. (2013). Predicting writing performance outcome via writing self-efficacy and implication on L2 tertiary learners in Malaysia. World Applied Sciences Journal. 26, 643-652.

Kim, J. A., & Lorsbach, A. W. (2005). Writing self-efficacy in young children: Issues for the early grades environment. Learning Environments Research, 8, 157-175.

Limpo, T., & Alves, R. A. (2013). Modeling writing development: Contribution of transcription and self-regulation to Portuguese students' text generation quality. Journal of Educational Psychology, 105(2), 401.

Limpo, T., Alves, R. A., & Fidalgo, R. (2014). Children's high‐level writing skills: Development of planning and revising and their contribution to writing quality. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 84(2), 177-193.

McClelland, M. M., C.Acock, A., Piccinin, A., Rhea, S. A., & Stallings, M. C. (2013). Relations between preschool attention span-persistence and age 25 educational outcomes. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 28(2), 314-324.

Mega, C., Ronconi, L., & Beni, R. D. (2014). What makes a good student? How emotions, self-regulated learning and motivation contribute to academic achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 106(1), 121-131.

Metallidaou, P. (2010). Children's self-regulated learning profile in language and mathematics: The role of task value beliefs. Psychology in the Schools, 47(8), 776-788. doi: 10.1002/pits.20503

Miller, B., McCardle, P. & Long, R. (2017). Teaching reading and writing: Improving instruction and student achievement. 10th edition, Baltimore, Maryland: Brooke.

MOE. (2015). Malaysia Education Blueprint 2013-2025. Ministry of Education, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

MOE. (2017). National Preschool Standard-Based Curriculum: Standard-Based Curriculum and Assessment Document Putrajaya: Ministry of Education Malaysia.

Ng, P. F., & Yeo, K. J. (2014). Preschool Teachers’ Beliefs and Practices on Early Literacy Instruction. Sains Humanika, 2(4).

Olinghouse, N. G., & Graham, S. (2009). The relationship between the discourse knowledge and the writing performance of elementary-grade students. Journal of Educational Psychology, 101(1), 37.

Panadero, E. (2017). A review of self-regulated learning: Six models and four directions for research. Front. Psychology, 8, 422. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00422

Pino-Pasternak, D., Basilio, M., & Whitebread, D. (2014). Interventions and classroom contexts that promote self-regulated learning: Two intervention studies in United Kingdom primary classrooms. PSYKHE 2014, 23(2), 1-13. doi: 10.7764/psykhe.23.2.739

Puranik, C. S., Al Otaiba, S., Sidler, J. F., & Greulich, L. (2014). Exploring the amount and type of writing instruction during language arts instruction in kindergarten classrooms. Reading and Writing, 27(2), 213-236.

Samah, S. I. S. A., Majzub, R., & Mahamod, Z. (2015). Teaching Writing in Preschool Classroom. Journal of Applied Research in Education, 19, 50-59.

Schunk, D. H., & Zimmerman, B. J. (2007). Influencing children's self-efficacy and self- regulation of reading and writing through modeling. Reading and Writing Quarterly, 23, 7-25.

Teng, L. S., & Zhang, L. J. (2016). A questionnaire‐based validation of multidimensional models of self‐regulated learning strategies. The Modern Language Journal, 100(3), 674-701.

White, M. C., & DiBenedetto, M. K. (2015). Self-regulation and the common core: Application to ELA standards: Routledge.

Whitebread, D., & Basilio, M. (2012). The emergence and early development of self-regulation in young children. Profesorado, 16(1), 15-33.

Whitebread, D., Coltman, P., Pasternak, D. P., Sangster, C., Grau, V., Bingham, S., Demetriou, D. (2009). The development of two observational tools for assessing metacognition and self-regulated learning in young children. Metacognition and learning, 4(1), 63-85.

Zimmerman, B. J. (2013). From cognitive modelling to self-regulation: A social cognitive career path. Educational Psychologist, 48(3), 135-147.

Zimmerman, B. J., & Risemberg, R. (1997). Becoming a self-regulated writer: A social cognitive perspective. Contemporary educational psychology, 22(1), 73-101.

Zimmerman, B. J., & Schunk, D. H. (2012). Self-regulated learning and academic achievement: Theory, research, and practice: Springer Science & Business Media.

Zumbrunn, S., Bruning, R., Kauffman, D., & Hayes, M. (2010). Explaining determinants of confidence and success in the elementary writing classroom. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Denver, CO.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2019 Siew Siew Kim, Mariani Md. Nor

Lisensi Creative Commons
This work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.