A Study of Cooperative Learning and Independence: Impact on Children's Prosocial Behavior

Dema Yulianto, Yufiarti Yufiarti, Ma'ruf Akbar


The purpose of the study was to analyze the impact of cooperative learning with the PAP and STAD methods and independence on young children's prosocial behavior. The research used an experimental method. The sample consisted of 48 children. Data were analyzed with the 2-factor ANOVA variants, followed by an interaction test between variables using the Tuckey test. The results show that there were differences in the prosocial behaviors between the group of children with high and low independence. Different method of cooperative learning used influenced young children’s prosocial behavior diffierently. There was also an interaction between cooperative learning and independence towards young children’s prosocial behavior. The implication of this research is that teachers as educators and counselors are required to carry out systematic and ongoing prosocial education as a form of example for children. Teachers wishing to teach with cooperative learning should choose a method appropriate to children’s characteristics. In addition, it is important to increase teachers’ motivation in teaching.


Cooperative; Learning; Indepedence; Prosocial; Children

Full Text:



Aphachai, P. A. (2014). Designing a learning model using the STAD technique with a suggestion system to decrease learners’ weakness. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 116, 431 – 435.

Barrett, T. (2005). Effects of cooperative learning on the performance of sixth-grade physical education students. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 24, 88–102.

Birch, S. H., & Ladd, G. W. (1998). Children's interpersonal behaviors and the teacher-child relationship. Developmental Psychology, 34, 934-946.

Broekhuizen, M.L., Mokrova, I.L., Burchinal, M.R., & Garret-Peters, P.T. (2016). Classroom quality at pre-kindergarten and kindergarten and children’s social skills and behavior problems. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 36, 212–222.

Blair. K, Denham. S, Kochanoff. A, & Wipple. B. (2004). Playing it cool: Temperament, emotion regulation, and social behavior in preschoolers. Journal of School Psychology, 42, 419-443.

Blair, C., McKinnon, R.D., & Daneri, M.P. (2018). Effect of the tools of the mind kindergarten program on children_s social and emotional development. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 43, 52–61.

Caputi. M, Lecce. S, Pagnin. A, & Banerjee. R. (2012). Longitudinal effects of theory of mind on later peer relations. The role of prosocial behavior, 48, 257-270.

Dalton, W. B. (2010). Antisocial and Prosocial Behavior. Research Triangle Institute. Retrieved from http:// www.rti.org/pubs/rtipress/rosen/ Chapter7_Antisocial_and_Prosocial_Behavior.pdf

Darwati, Y. (2010). Penerapan teknik permainan bahasa untuk meningkatkan kemampuan menulis puisi di Kelas V SD Inpres Minakarya. Jurnal Kreatif Tadulako Online, 4 (12).

Effendi, A., Soetjipto, B.E., & Widiati, U. (2016). The implementation of cooperative learning model tsts and carousel feedback to enhance motivation and learning outcome for social studies. IOSR Journal of Research & Method in Education (IOSR-JRME), 6(3), 131-136.

Eisenberg. N, Fabes. R, Murphy. B, Shepard.S, Guthrie. I, Mazsk. P, Poulin. R, & Jones. S. (1999). Prediction of elementary school children’s socially appropriate and problem behavior from anger reactions at age 4-6 years. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 20, 119-142.

Eisenberg, N., Fabes, R. A., & Spinrad, T. L. (2006). Prosocial Development. In N. Eisenberg, W. Damon, & R. M. Lerner (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology: Social, emotional, and personality development (pp. 646-718). Hoboken, NJ, US: John Wiley & Sons Inc.

Finlinson, A.R. (1997). Cooperative Games: Promoting Prosocial Behaviors in Children. All Graduate Theses and Dissertations Paper 2404.

Fraenkel, J. R., & Wallen, N. E. (1996). How to design and evaluate research in education. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Gay.G & Kirkland, G. (2003). Developing cultural critical consciousness and self-reflection in preservice teacher education. Theory Into Practice, 42 (3), 181-187.

Huang, M-Y., Tu, H-Y., Wang, W-Y., Chen, J-F., Yu, Y-T., & Chou, C-C. (2017). Effects of cooperative learning and concept mapping intervention on critical thinking and basketball skills inelementary School. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 23, 207–216.

Iserbyt, P., Madou, B., Vergauwen, L., & Behets, D. (2011). Effects of peer mediated instruction with task cards on motor skill acquisition in tennis. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 30, 31–50.

Isjoni. (2013). Cooperative Learning Efektivitas Pembelajaran Kelompok. Bandung: Alfabeta.

Islakhiyah, D. (2013). Implementasi Pendidikan Prososial (Studi pada TK Nurul Islam Purwoyoso Ngaliyan Semarang Tahun pelajaran 2012/2013). Undergraduate (S1) thesis, IAIN Walisongo.

Khan, G. N., & Inamullah, H.M. (2011). Effect of student’s team achievement division (STAD) on academic achievement of students. Asian Social Science, 7(12), 211-215.

Kusumaningrum, I.,& Andrianto, S. (2012). Hubungan antara Kemandirian dengan Perilaku Prososial pada Remaja. Skripsi: Tidak dipublikasikan. UII:Yogyakarta

Ladd G.W., & Burgess K.B. (2001). Do relational risks and protective factors moderate the linkages between childhood aggression and early psychological and school adjustment? Child Development, 72, 1579–1601.

Lavasani, M.G., Afzali, L., Borhanzadeh, S., Afzali, F., & Davoodi, M. (2011). The effect of cooperative learning on the social skills of first grade elementary school girls. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 15, 1802–1805.

Novianti, I. (2013). Experimentation cooperative learning student team achievement division (stad) type viewed from learning motivation. Asian Journal of Education and E-Learning, 01(05), 272-276.

Plowman, L., & McPake, J. (2013). Seven myths about young children and technology. Childhood Education 89 (1), 27-33.

Rakhman, A.,& Syatroh, I.L (2015). The analysis of students’ team achievement divisions (STAD) used in learning practice of translating and interpreting. ELTIN Journal, 3(II), 72-84.

Renouf. A, Brendgen. M, Parent. S, Vitaro. F, Zelazo. P, Boivin. M, Dionne. G, Tremblay. R, Perusse. D, & Seguin. J. (2010). Relations between theory of mind and indirect aggression in kindergarten: Evidence of the moderating role of prosocial behaviors. Social Development, 19, 535-555.

Schonert-Reichl K.A, Smith V, Zaidman-Zait A, & Hertzman C. (2012). Promoting children’s prosocial behaviors in school: Impact of the “Roots of Empathy” program on the social and emotional competence of school-aged children. School Mental Health, 4, 1–21. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1007/s12310-011-9064-7.

Silver R.B, Measelle J.R, Armstrong J.M, & Essex M.J. (2005). Trajectories of classroom externalizing behavior: Contributions of child characteristics, family characteristics, and the teacher–child relationship during the school transition. Journal of School Psychology, 43, 39–60.

Slavin, R. E. (2008). Cooperative Learning (Teori, Riset, dan Praktik). Bandung: Nusa Media.

Soodak, C. L., Erwin, E.J., WInton, P., Brotherson, M.J., ...Brault, L.M.J. (2002). Implementing Inclusive Early Childhood Education: A Call for Professional Empowerment. TECSE, 22(2), 91–102.

Steinberg. J. R. (2002). Adolescence: sixth edition. USA: McGraw Hill Higher Education.

Tarasova, K. S. (2016). Development of socio-emotional competence in primary school children. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 233, 128–132.

Taylor. Z, Eisenberg. N, Spinrad. T, Eggum. N, & Sulik. M. (2013). The relations of ego-resiliency and emotion socialization to the development of empathy and prosocial behavior across early childhood. . Emotion, 13, 822-831.

Uno, H. B. (2012). Model Pembelajaran. Jakarta: Bumi Aksara.

Utomo, H. B. (2018). Teacher motivation behavior: The importance of personal expectations, need satisfaction, and work climate. International Journal of Pedagogy and Teacher Education, 2(2), 333-342.

Wentzel, K. (2015). Prosocial behaviour and schooling. In Encyclopedia of Early Childhood Development. Retrieved from: http://www.child-encyclopedia.com/prosocial-behaviour/according-experts/prosocial-behaviour-and-schooling

DOI: https://doi.org/10.17509/ije.v12i1.17522


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2019 Dema Yulianto

Lisensi Creative Commons
This work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.