Avelino G. Ignacio Jr.


Students, by just listening to and being observant of mathematical procedures to gain conceptual knowledge in mathematics, do not often lead valuable performance. Students need to participate. Learning is initiated and enhanced via continuing legitimate participation in a community of practice. Hence, this study explores students' legitimate peripheral participation in a college mathematics course, explicitly to describe the (1) activities students do to refine practice, (2) barriers students face to advance to full participation, and (3) participation support structures that allow students' legitimate peripheral participation. This study used qualitative-exploratory research design via the qualitative tool—reflective journal—comprising second-year teacher education students (N = 42) from a state university in Bulacan, Philippines, taking the Logic and Set Theory course as study participants, obtained purposively. Data were analyzed through thematic coding. This study showed that the activities of students that refine their practice could be thematized as individual engagement or collaborative involvement. Students faced both intrinsic and extrinsic barriers in progressing to full participation. The participation support structures facilitating students' legitimate peripheral participation were the manifestation of a welcoming environment that offered students additional practice activities to work into supplemented with constructive feedback, joined with the convenience of peer groups where they could go when needed. Inspirational life quotes, fascinating lessons that stir interest, and closed knowledge gaps equally enable student participation. A legitimate peripheral participation activity cycle may still arise when faced with difficulties as participants gradually try to work independently. A friendship-based collaborative group is suggested for Filipino learners.


community of practice, legitimate peripheral participation, mathematics, participation, teacher education

Full Text:



Adebanji, C. A., & Gumbo, M. T. (2014). French-speaking students' academic experiences at a private provider of higher education offering foundation programmes. South African Journal of Higher Education, 28(4), 1230–1248. https://doi.org/10.20853/28-4-387

Al-Issa, A. S. (2020). The language planning situation in the Sultanate of Oman. Current Issues in Language Planning, 21(4), 347-414. https://doi.org/10.1080/10986065.2021.1949529

Back, M. (2011). Legitimate peripheral participation and language learning: Two Quichua learners in a transnational community. Language Learning, 61(4), 1039–1057. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9922.2011.00662.x

Bobis, J., Way, J., Anderson, J., & Martin, A. J. (2015). Challenging teacher beliefs about student engagement in mathematics. Journal of Mathematics Teacher Education, 19, 33–55. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10857-015-9300-4

Bond, M. (2020). Facilitating student engagement through the flipped learning approach in K-12: A systematic review. Computers & Education, 151, 103819. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2020.103819

Borge, M., Toprani, D., Yan, S., & Xia, Y. (2020). Embedded design: engaging students as active participants in the learning of human-centered design practices. Computer Science Education, 30(1), 47-71. https://doi.org/10.1080/08993408.2019.1688592

Brady, M., Rosenthal, J. L., Forest, C. P., & Hocevar, D. (2020). Anonymous versus public student feedback systems: Metacognition and achievement with graduate learners. Educational Technology Research and Development, 68, 2853–2872. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11423-020-09800-6

Bromley, M. (2019). Feedback, metacognition and other interventions. SecEd, 2019(13), 21–27. https://doi.org/10.12968/sece.2019.13.21

Brown, R. (2007). Exploring the social positions that students construct within a classroom community of practice. International Journal of Educational Research, 46(3-4), 116–128. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijer.2007.09.012

Chang, B. (2019). Reflection in learning. Online Learning, 23(1), 95-110.

Cho, S. (2004). Challenges of entering discourse communities through publishing in English: Perspectives of nonnative-speaking doctoral students in United States of America. Journal of Language, Identity, and Education, 3(1), 47–72. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327701jlie0301_3

Cordero, E. C., Centeno, D., & Todd, A. M. (2020). The role of climate change education on individual lifetime carbon emissions. PloS one, 15(2), e0206266. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0206266

Debbağ, M., & Yıldız, S. (2021). Effect of the flipped classroom model on academic achievement and motivation in teacher education. Education and Information Technologies, 26(3), 3057-3076.

Eberle, J., Stegmann, K., & Fischer, F. (2014). Legitimate peripheral participation in communities of practice: Participation support structures for newcomers in faculty student councils. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 23(2), 216–244. https://doi.org/10.1080/10508406.2014.883978

Eggleton, K., Fortier, R., Fishman, T., Hawken, S. J., & Goodyear-Smith, F. (2019). Legitimate participation of medical students in community attachments. Education for Primary Care, 30(1), 35–40. https://doi.org/10.1080/14739879.2018.1563503

Feroz, H. M. B., Zulfiqar, S., Noor, S., & Huo, C. (2022). Examining multiple engagements and their impact on students' knowledge acquisition: The moderating role of information overload. Journal of Applied Research in Higher Education, 14(1), 366-393. https://doi.org/10.1108/JARHE-11-2020-0422

Flowerdew, J. (2000). Discourse community, legitimate peripheral participation, and the nonnative-English-speaking scholar. TESOL Quarterly, 34(1), 127–150. https://doi.org/10.2307/3588099

Freeman, G. D., & Lucius, L. B. (2008). Student engagement and teacher guidance in meaningful mathematics: Enduring principles. The Mathematics Teacher, 102(3), 164–167. https://doi.org/10.5951/MT.102.3.0164

Golumbic, Y. N., Motion, A., Chau, A., Choi, L., D'Silva, D., Ho, J., ... & Scroggie, K. R. (2022). Self-reflection promotes learning in citizen science and serves as an effective assessment tool. Computers and Education Open, 3, 100104. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.caeo.2022.100104

Hasrati, M. (2005). Legitimate peripheral participation and supervising Ph.D. students. Studies in Higher Education, 30(5), 557–570. http://doi.org/10.1080/03075070500249252

Hindi, A. M. K., Willis, S. C., & Schafheutle, E. I. (2022). Using communities of practice as a lens for exploring experiential pharmacy learning in general practice: Are communities of practice the way forward in changing the training culture in pharmacy? BMC Medical Education, 22(12), 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12909-021-03079-8

Hsiao, C.-H. (2018). Legitimate peripheral participation and teacher identity formation among preservice teachers in TESOL practicums. Journal of Curriculum and Teaching, 7(1), 64–80.

Ignacio, A. G. (2022). Achievement goals, emotions, and failure tolerance: Path model of students' mathematics motivation. Interdisciplinary Research Review, 17(4), 1–7. https://ph02.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/jtir/article/view/245976/167797

Ignacio, A. G. (2021). Revisiting learner-centered ideology, management, and paradigm. International Journal of Science Annals, 4(2), 50–52. https://doi.org/10.26697/ijsa.2021.2.6

Ignacio, A. G., & Sison, L. R. C. (2022). Mathematical discourses on propositional equivalence: An exploration through the commognitive lens. International Journal of Learning and Teaching, 14(4), 112–124. https://doi.org/10.18844/ijlt.v14i4.7056

Jacobs, G. M., & Renandya, W. A. (2019). Student-centered cooperative learning: Linking concepts in education to promote student learning. Springer Nature. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-13-7213-1

Janardhanan, N. S., Lewis, K., Reger, R. K., & Stevens, C. K. (2020). Getting to know you: motivating cross-understanding for improved team and individual performance. Organization Science, 31(1), 103-118. https://doi.org/10.1287/orsc.2019.1324

Johnston, D. (2016). 'Sitting alone in the staffroom contemplating my future': Communities of practice, legitimate peripheral participation and student teachers' experiences of problematic school placements as guests. Cambridge Journal of Education, 46(4) 533–551. http://doi.org/10.1080/0305764X.2015.1069793

Lavie, I., Steiner, A., & Sfard, A. (2019). Routines we live by: From ritual to exploration. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 101, 153-176.

Leinonen, A. (2022). Struggling against language shift: Kurdish language education in Turkey. Kurdish Studies, 10(1), 19-37.

Lu, H., Yu, Y., Jain, A., Ang, Y. S., & Ong, W. L. (2022). Deep learning techniques elucidate and modify the shape factor to extend the effective medium theory beyond its original formulation. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 184, 122305. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2021.122305

Luo, N. (2015). Two Chinese medical master's students aspiring to publish internationally: A longitudinal study of legitimate peripheral participation in their communities of practice. Publications, 3, 89–103. http://doi.org/10.3390/publications3020089

Moule, P. (2006). E-learning for healthcare students: Developing the communities of practice framework. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 54(3), 370–380. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2648.2006.03813.x

Mpofu, S., & Mudaly, V. (2020). Grade 11 rural learners understanding of functions: A commognition perspective. African Journal of Research in Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 24(2), 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1080/18117295.2020.1798670

Nardi, E., Ryve, A., Stadler, E., & Viirman, O. (2014). Commognitive analyses of the learning and teaching of mathematics at university level: The case of discursive shifts in the study of Calculus. Research in Mathematics Education, 16(2), 182–198. https://doi.org/10.1080/14794802.2014.918338

O'Donnell, V. L., & Tobbell, J. (2007). The transition of adult students to higher education: Legitimate peripheral participation in a community of practice? Adult Education Quarterly, 57(4), 312–328. https://doi.org/10.1177/0741713607302686

Park, J.-Y. (2015). Student interactivity and teacher participation: An application of legitimate peripheral participation in higher education online learning environments. Technology, Pedagogy and Education, 24(3), 389–406. http://doi.org/10.1080/1475939X.2014.935743

Park, S.-Y. (2005). Student engagement and classroom variables in improving mathematics achievement. Asia Pacific Education Review, 6(1), 87–97. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03024970

Peercy, M. M., Martin-Beltran, M., & Daniel, S. M. (2013). Learning together: Creating a community of practice to support English language learner literacy. Language, Culture and Curriculum, 26(3), 284–299. https://doi.org/10.1080/07908318.2013.849720

Pennanen, M., Heikkinen, H. L., & Tynjälä, P. (2020). Virtues of mentors and mentees in the Finnish model of teachers’ peer-group mentoring. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 64(3), 355-371. https://doi.org/10.1080/00313831.2018.1554601

Perron, G. M., & Duffy, J. F. (2011). Environmental and business communities of practice: Graduate students comparing community-relevant language. Business Strategy and the Environment, 21(3), 170–182. https://doi.org/10.1002/bse.725

Plata-Ramírez, J. M. (2017). Moving towards legitimate participation. A Venezuelan girl learning English in an Iowa City elementary school. Revista Electrónica Educare, 21(3), 1–24. http://dx.doi.org/10.15359/ree.21-3.1

Presmeg, N. (2015). Commognition as a lens for research. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 91(3), 423–430. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10649-015-9676-1

Safran, L. (2010). Legitimate peripheral participation and home education. Teaching and Teacher Education, 26, 107–112. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2009.06.002

Samimy, K., Kim, S., Lee, J.-H., & Kasai, M., (2011). A participative inquiry in a TESOL program: Development of three NNES graduate students' legitimate peripheral participation to fuller participation. The Modern Language Journal, 95(4), 558–574. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.2011.01247.x

Sfard, A. (2007). When the rules of discourse change, but nobody tells you: Making sense of mathematics learning from a commognitive standpoint. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 16(4), 565–613. https://doi.org/10.1080/10508400701525253

Sherbert, V., Thurston, L. P., Fishback, J., & Briggs, K. (2017). Creating and sustaining a college-wide military-connected learner community of practice. The Journal of Continuing Higher Education, 65(3), 199–204. https://doi.org/10.1080/07377363.2017.1368664

Stoner, A. M., & Cennamo, K. S. (2018). Enhancing reflection within situated learning: Incorporating mindfulness as an instructional strategy. Springer Nature. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-70326-8

Teeuwsen, P., Ratkovic´, S., & Tilley, S. A. (2014). Becoming academics: Experiencing legitimate peripheral participation in part-time doctoral studies. Studies in Higher Education, 39(4), 680–694. http://doi.org/10.1080/03075079.2012.729030

Thanh-Pham, T. H. (2011). Issues to consider when implementing student-centred learning practices at Asian higher education institutions. Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management, 33(3), 519–528. https://doi.org/10.1080/1360080X.2011.605226

Sutherland, L. M., Scanlon, L. A., & Sperring, A. (2005). New directions in preparing professionals: Examining issues in engaging students in communities of practice through a school-university partnership. Teaching and Teacher Education, 21(1), 79–92. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2004.11.007

Viirman, O. (2015). Explanation, motivation and question posing routines in university mathematics teachers' pedagogical discourse: A commognitive analysis. International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology, 46(8), 1165–1181. https://doi.org/10.1080/0020739X.2015.1034206

Wexler, L. J. (2020). ‘I would be a completely different teacher if I had been with a different mentor’: Ways in which educative mentoring matters as novices learn to teach. Professional development in education, 46(2), 211-228. https://doi.org/10.1080/19415257.2019.1573375

Zaffini, E. J. (2018). Communities of practice and legitimate peripheral participation: A literature review. National Association of Music Education, 36(3), 38–43. https://doi.org/10.1177/8755123317743977

DOI: https://doi.org/10.17509/ije.v15i2.53492


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 Avelino G. Ignacio Jr.

Lisensi Creative Commons
This work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.