A Design Model of Special Vocational High School for Children with Visual Impairment

Johar Maknun, M Syaom Barliana, Diah Cahyani


This paper aimed to describe architectural design model of vocational high school that is accessible and meets the behavioral needs of children with visual impairment. The method used was a rational design method or often called as a glass box method, which was divided into four steps: 1) design criteria; 2) children with visual impairment’s behaviour; 3) programming; 4) designing model. The design criteria was combined based on its accessibility, space, sensory awareness, enhancement of learning, flexibility and ability, health and well-being condition, safety and security, sustainability, incorporation of nature environment and buildings, and availability of open space. These principle implemented from outside to inside the building, as well as from the site, landscape, building to interior of classroom. We believe that this study gives important for the need of architectural building model for students with special needs.


Special Vocational High School; Visual Impairment Model Design; Design Criteria

Full Text:



Ainscow, M. (1997). Towards inclusive schooling. British Journal of Special Education, 24(1), 3-6.

Bell, S., Hirvonen, M., Kukemelk, H., Pancocha, K., Vadurova, H., and Hion, P. (2014). The inclusion of students with special educational needs in vocational education and training: a comparative study of the changing role of SEN teachers in the European context (Finland, England, The Czech Republic and Estonia). Socialiniai Tyrimai, (2), 21-25.

Bricker, D. (1995). The challenge of inclusion. Journal of early intervention, 19(3), 179-194.

Dale N, Salt A. (2007); Early support developmental journal for children with visual impairment: the case for a new developmental framework for early intervention. Child: care, health and development, 33(6), 684-690.

Davern, L. (1999). Parents' perspectives on personnel attitudes and characteristics in inclusive school settings: Implications for teacher preparation programs. Teacher Education and Special Education, 22(3), 165-182.

Demir, T., Bolat, N., Yavuz, M., Karacetin, G., Dogangun, B., Kayaal, L., (2014), Attachment Characteristics and Behavioral Problems in Children and Adolescents with Congenital Blindness. Nöro Psikiyatri Arşivi, 51, 116-121.

Edgar, E. (1987). Secondary programs in special education: Are many of them justifiable?. Exceptional Children, 53(6), 555-561

Garaigordobil, M., and Bernarás, E. (2009). Self-concept, self-esteem, personality traits and psychopathological symptoms in adolescents with and without visual impairment. The Spanish journal of psychology, 12(1), 149-160.

Gettinger, M., Callan Stoiber, K., Goetz, D., and Caspe, E. (1999). Competencies and training needs for early childhood inclusion specialists. Teacher Education and Special Education, 22(1), 41-54.

Giangreco, M. F., Dennis, R., Cloninger, C., Edelman, S., and Schattman, R. (1993). “I've counted Jon”: Transformational experiences of teachers educating students with disabilities. Exceptional Children, 59(4), 359-372.

Hartig, T., and Marcus, C. C. (2006). Essay: Healing gardens—places for nature in health care. The Lancet, 368, S36-S37.

Harvey, M. W. (2001). Vocational-technical education: A logical approach to dropout prevention for secondary special education. Preventing School Failure: Alternative Education for Children and Youth, 45(3), 108-113.

Vidal, R., Mulet, E., and Gómez-Senent, E. (2004). Effectiveness of the means of expression in creative problem-solving in design groups. Journal of Engineering Design, 15(3), 285-298.

Koenes, S. G., and Karshmer, J. F. (2000). Depression: A comparison study between blind and sighted adolescents. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 21(3), 269-279.

Lifshitz, H., Hen, I., and Weisse, I. (2007). Self-concept, adjustment to blindness, and quality of friendship among adolescents with visual impairments. Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness, 101(2), 96-107.

Mithaug, D. E., Horiuchi, C. N., and Fanning, P. N. (1985). A report on the Colorado statewide follow-up survey of special education students. Exceptional Children, 51(5), 397-404.

Morley, D., Bailey, R., Tan, J., and Cooke, B. (2005). Inclusive physical education: Teachers’ views of including pupils with special educational needs and/or disabilities in physical education. European Physical Education Review, 11(1), 84-107.

Paramita, B., Kamilia, I., Nurhidayat, M. I., and Ocktaviyane, R. (2016). Optimization of Design and Planing VHS Building Using Chronolux. Indonesian Journal of Science and Technology, 1(2), 170-184.

Passini, R., and Proulx, G. (1988). Wayfinding without vision: An experiment with congenitally totally blind people. Environment and Behavior, 20(2), 227-252.

Perkins, D. D., Meeks, J. W., and Taylor, R. B. (1992). The physical environment of street blocks and resident perceptions of crime and disorder: Implications for theory and measurement. Journal of environmental psychology, 12(1), 21-34.

Pfeiffer, D., and Schein, A. (2001). A comparative study of services to disabled students in public colleges and universities in the United States and in Massachusetts. Disability Studies Quarterly, 21(1), 1-10.

Rasinski, K. A., and Pedlow, S. (1994). Using Transcripts to Study the Effectiveness of Vocational Education. Journal of Vocational Education Research, 19(3), 23-43.

Rusch, F. R., Hughes, C., Agran, M., Martin, J. E., and Johnson, J. R. (2009). Toward self-directed learning, post-high school placement, and coordinated support constructing new transition bridges to adult life. Career Development for Exceptional Individuals, 32(1), 53-59.

Rimmer, J. H., Riley, B., Wang, E., Rauworth, A., and Jurkowski, J. (2004). Physical activity participation among persons with disabilities: barriers and facilitators. American journal of preventive medicine, 26(5), 419-425.

Reindal, S. M. (2010). What is the purpose? Reflections on inclusion and special education from a capability perspective. European journal of special needs education, 25(1), 1-12.

Schenkman, B. N. (1986). Identification of ground materials with the aid of tapping sounds and vibrations of long canes for the blind. Ergonomics, 29(8), 985-998.

Skiba, R. J., Simmons, A. B., Ritter, S., Gibb, A. C., Rausch, M. K., Cuadrado, J., and Chung, C. G. (2008). Achieving equity in special education: History, status, and current challenges. Exceptional Children, 74(3), 264-288.

Smári, J., Sigurjónsdóttir, H., and Sæmundsdóttir, I. (1994). Thought suppression and obsession-compulsion. Psychological Reports, 75(1), 227-235.

Stainback, W., and Stainback, S. (1984). A rationale for the merger of special and regular education. Exceptional children, 51(2), 102-111.

Steyn, G. M., and Vlachos, C. J. (2011). Developing a Vocational Training and Transition Planning Programme for intellectually disabled students in South Africa: A case study. Journal of Social Sciences, 27(1), 25-37.

Test, D. W. (2004). Invited commentary on Rusch and Braddock (2004): One person at a time. Research and Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities, 29(4), 248-252.

Tomblin, M. J., and Haring, K. A. (1999). Vocational training for students with learning disabilities: A qualitative investigation. Journal of Vocational Education and Training, 51(3), 357-370.

Wener, R., and Carmalt, H. (2006). Environmental psychology and sustainability in high-rise structures. Technology in Society, 28(1-2), 157-167.

Wong HB, Machin D, Tan SB, Wong TY, Saw SM. (2009); Visual impairment and its impact on health-related quality of life in adolescents. Am J Ophthalmol, 147, 505-511.

Wolery, M. (1997). Encounters with general early education: Lessons being learned. Journal of Behavioral Education, 7(1), 91-98.

Yaeda, J., and Jindal-Snape, D. (2011). Post-school transition of students with disabilities: The Japanese experience. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 9(17), 112-117.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.17509/ijost.v4i2.18173


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2019 Indonesian Journal of Science and Technology

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Indonesian Journal of Science and Technology is published by UPI.
StatCounter - Free Web Tracker and Counter
View My Stats