Geomorphological Analysis and Hydrological Potential Zone of Baira River Watershed, Churah in Chamba District of Himachal Pradesh, India

Kuldeep Pareta, Upasana Pareta


In the present study, an attempt has been made to study the quantitative geomorphological analysis and hydrological characterization of 95 micro-watersheds (MWS) of Baira river watershed in Himachal Pradesh, India with an area of 425.25 Km2. First time in the world, total 173 morphometric parameters have been generated in a single watershed using satellite remote sensing data (i.e. IRS-P6 ResourceSAT-1 LISS-III, LandSAT-7 ETM+, and LandSAT-8 PAN & OLI merge data), digital elevation models (i.e. IRS-P5 CartoSAT-1 DEM, ASTER DEM data), and soI topographical maps of 1: 50,000 scale. The ninety-five micro-watersheds (MWS) of Baira river watershed have been prioritized through the morphometric analysis of different morphometric parameters (i.e. drainage network, basin geometry, drainage texture analysis, and relief characterizes ). The study has concurrently established the importance of geomorphometry as well as the utility of remote sensing and GIS technology for hydrological characterization of the watershed and there for better resource and environmental managements.


Geomorphometric analysis; hydrological characterization; remote sensing and GIS analysis; micro-watershed assessment

Full Text:



Abrahams, A. D. (1984). Channel networks: a geomorphological perspective. Water resources research, 20(2), 161-188.

Azor, A., Keller, E.A., & Yeats, R.S. (2002). Geomorphic indicators of active fold growth: South Mountain-Oak Ridge Anticline, Ventura Basin, Southern California. Geological society of america bulletin, 114(6), 745-753.

Black, P. E. (1972). Hydrograph responses to geomorphic model watershed characteristics and precipitation variables. Journal of hydrology, 17(4), 309-329.

Boison, P. J., & Patton, P. C. (1985). Sediment storage and terrace formation in Coyote Gulch basin, south-central Utah. Geology, 13(1), 31-34.

Chorley, R. J., Malm, D. E., & Pogorzelski, H. A. (1957). A new standard for estimating drainage basin shape. American journal of science, 255(2), 138-141.

Cox, R. T. (1994). Analysis of drainage-basin symmetry as a rapid technique to identify areas of possible Quaternary tilt-block tectonics: An example from the Mississippi Embayment. Geological society of america bulletin, 106(5), 571-581.

Dar, R. A., Chandra, R., & Romshoo, S. A. (2013). Morphotectonic and lithostratigraphic analysis of intermontane Karewa Basin of Kashmir Himalayas, India. Journal of mountain science, 10(1), 1-15.

De Terra, H. (1939). The Quaternary terrace system of southern Asia and the age of man. Geographical review, 29(1), 101-118.

Angillieri, M. Y. E. (2008). Morphometric analysis of Colangüil river basin and flash flood hazard, San Juan, Argentina. Environmental geology, 55(1), 107-111.

Faniran, A. (1968). The index of drainage intensity-A provisional new drainage factor. Australian journal of science, 31, 328-330.

Farvolden, R. N. (1963). Geologic controls on ground-water storage and base flow. Journal of hydrology, 1(3), 219-249.

Hack, J. T. (1957). Studies of longitudinal profiles in Virginia and Maryland, no. 294-B in US Geol. Survey Prof. Papers, US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 690(691), 10.

Hack, J. T. (1973). Stream-profile analysis and stream-gradient index. Journal of research of the US geological survey, 1(4), 421-429.

Horton, R. E. (1932). Drainage‐basin characteristics. Eos, transactions american geophysical union, 13(1), 350-361.

Horton, R. E. (1945). Erosional development of streams and their drainage basins; hydrophysical approach to quantitative morphology. Geological society of america bulletin, 56(3), 275-370.

Jain, S. K., Singh, R. D., & Seth, S. M. (2000). Design flood estimation using GIS supported GIUHApproach. Water resources management, 14(5), 369-376.

Jenness, J. (2005). Topographic position index (TPI) v 1.2. Extension for ArcView 3x. Jenness En-Terprices, Available online at web site: (accessed on December 2, 2016)

Krishnan, M. S., & Aiyengar, N. K. N. (1940). Did the Indobrahm or Siwalik river exist. Records, geological survey of india, 75(6), 24.

Lustig, L. K. (1966). The Geomorphic and Paleoclimatic Significance of Alluvial Deposits in Southern Arizona: A Discussion. The journal of geology, 74(1), 95-102.

Lindsay, J. B. (2005). The terrain analysis system: A tool for hydro‐geomorphic applications. Hydrological processes, 19(5), 1123-1130.

Melton, M. A. (1958). Geometric properties of mature drainage systems and their representation in an E4 phase space. The journal of geology, 66(1), 35-54.

Melton, M. A. (1965). The geomorphic and paleoclimatic significance of alluvial deposits in southern Arizona. The Journal of geology, 73(1), 1-38.

Miller, V. C. (1968). Aerial photographs and surface features–1. Aerial photographs and land forms (photogeomorphology). In Aerial surveys and integrated studies: proceedings of the Toulouse Conference. UNESCO, Paris (pp. 41-69).

Mitchell, S. G. & Montgomery, D. R. (2006). Polygenetic topography of the Cascade Range, Washington State, USA. American journal of science, 306(9), 736-768.

Moore, I. D. & Wilson, J. P. (1992). Length-slope factors for the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation: Simplified method of estimation. Journal of soil and water conservation, 47(5), 423-428.

Moore, I. D., Gessler, P. E., Nielsen, G. A., & Peterson, G. A. (1993). Soil attribute prediction using terrain analysis. Soil science society of america journal, 57(2), 443-452.

Moore, I. D., Grayson, R. B., & Ladson, A. R. (1991). Digital terrain modelling: a review of hydrological, geomorphological, and biological applications. Hydrological processes, 5(1), 3-30.

Moore, R. F. & Thornes, J. B. (1976). Leap—a suite of FORTRAN IV programs for generating erosional potentials of land surfaces from topographic information. Computers and geosciences, 2(4), 493-499.

Mueller, J. E. (1968). An introduction to the hydraulic and topographic sinuosity indexes 1. Annals of the association of american geographers, 58(2), 371-385.

Pareta, K. (2004). Hydro-geomorphology of Sagar district (MP): a study through remote sensing technique. In Proceeding in XIX MP Young Scientist Congress, Madhya Pradesh Council of Science & Technology (MAPCOST), Bhopal.

Pareta, K., & Pareta, U. (2014). New watershed codification system for Indian river basins. Journal of hydrology and environment research, 2(1), 31-40.

Park, S. J., McSweeney, K., & Lowery, B. (2001). Identification of the spatial distribution of soils using a process-based terrain characterization. Geoderma, 103(3), 249-272.

Patton, P. C., & Baker, V. R. (1976). Morphometry and floods in small drainage basins subject to diverse hydrogeomorphic controls. Water resources research, 12(5), 941-952.

Potter, P. E. (1957). A Quantitative Geomorphic Study of Drainage Basin Characteristics in the Clinch Mountain Area, Virginia and Tennessee VC Miller. The journal of geology, 65(1).

Rao, D. P. (2002). Remote sensing application in geomorphology. Tropical ecology, 43(1), 49-59.

Rahmat, A., & Mutolib, A. (2016). Comparison Air Temperature under Global Climate Change Issue in Gifu city and Ogaki city, Japan. Indonesian journal of science and technology, 1(1), 37-46.

Rastogi, R. A., & Sharma, T. C. (1976). Quantitative analysis of drainage basin characteristics. Journal of soil and water conservation in india, 26(1), 18-25.

Rich, J. L. (1916). A graphical method of determining the average inclination of a land surface from a contour map. Transaction illinois academy of science, 9, 196-199.

Riley, S. J. (1999). Index That Quantifies Topographic Heterogeneity. Intermountain journal of sciences, 5(1–4), 23-27.

Schumm, S. A., & Lichty, R. W. (1965). Time, space, and causality in geomorphology. American journal of science, 263(2), 110-119.

Schumm, S. A. (1956). Evolution of drainage systems and slopes in badlands at Perth Amboy, New Jersey. Geological society of america bulletin, 67(5), 597-646.

Smart, J. S., & Surkan, A. J. (1967). The relation between mainstream length and area in drainage basins. Water resources research, 3(4), 963-974.

Snow, R. S., & Slingerland, R. L. (1987). Mathematical modeling of graded river profiles. The journal of geology, 95(1), 15-33.

Sreedevi, P. D. (2004). Groundwater quality of Pageru river basin, Cuddapah district, Andhra Pradesh. Geological society of india, 64(5), 619-636.

Sreedevi, P. D., Owais, S., Khan, H. H., & Ahmed, S. (2009). Morphometric analysis of a watershed of South India using SRTM data and GIS. Journal of the geological society of india, 73(4), 543-552.

Strahler, A. N. (1952). Dynamic basis of geomorphology. Geological society of america bulletin, 63(9), 923-938.

Suresh, M., Sudhakar, S., Tiwari, K. N., & Chowdary, V. M. (2004). Prioritization of watersheds using morphometric parameters and assessment of surface water potential using remote sensing. Journal of the indian society of remote sensing, 32(3), 249-259.

Sutherland, R. A., & Bryan, R. B. (1991). Sediment budgeting: a case study in the Katiorin drainage basin, Kenya. Earth surface processes and landforms, 16(5), 383-398.

Taylor, A. B., & Schwarz, H. E. (1952). Unit‐hydrograph lag and peak flow related to basin characteristics. Eos, transactions american geophysical union, 33(2), 235-246.

Tomlinson, M. E. (1925). River-terraces of the Lower Valley of the Warwickshire Avon. Quarterly journal of the geological society, 81(1-4), 137-NP.

Wentworth, C. K. (1930). A simplified method of determining the average slope of land surfaces. American journal of science, 21, 184-194.

Woodroffe, C. D. (1981). Mangrove swamp stratigraphy and Holocene transgression, Grand Cayman Island, West Indies. Marine geology, 41(3-4), 271-294.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2017 Indonesian Journal of Science and Technology

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Indonesian Journal of Science and Technology is published by UPI.
StatCounter - Free Web Tracker and Counter
View My Stats