Cover Image

Parent Involvement in Pre-school Science Activities: What Do Parents Think About It?

Cigdem Sahin Cakir, Gonca Uludağ


This study aimed to investigate parents' views about science and parent involvement in pre-school science activities. According to Cresswell's designs' sequential explanatory mixed-method design, the study was conducted. The participants were composed of parents of 39 children (60-72 months) who studied in two different classrooms, there were 20 children in one of the classrooms, and there were 19 children in the other classroom at a public pre-school in Ankara/Turkey in 2015-2016 school year. The Parents' Views about Science and Preschool Science Activities Scale and semi-structured interviews were used to collect data. In addition, semi-structured interviews were conducted with three volunteer parents, each from the parents who got high, medium, and low average scores from the scale. Thus, parents' views about science and parent involvement in pre-school science activities were examined in detail. According to the results of this study, it was determined that the parents who participated in this study had positive views on science and science education in pre-school, realized the importance of science activities in pre-school, were eager to participate in pre-school science activities. Therefore, this study suggests that teachers and parents should be informed that parents' involvement is essential for doing science activities in pre-school.

Full Text:

Download PDF


Adair, A. E. (2020). Measuring pre-school parents' attitudes towards science: Development and psychometric evaluation of a parent version of the dimension of attitudes towards science instrument. (Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation). The Graduate Center, The City University of New York, USA.

Ahmetoglu, E., Acar, İ. H., Sezer, T., & Akşin Yavuz, E. (2018). Adaptation of family involvement questionnaire into Turkish culture. Bolu Abant Izzet Baysal University Journal of Faculty of Education, 18(1), 1-20.

Aksu, F. F., & Karaçöp, A. (2015). The parental involvement in students’ home based science learning activities. Erzincan University Journal of Education Faculty, 17(2), 456-476.

Aktas Arnas, Y., Aslan, D., & Günay Bilaloglu, R. (2012). Okul öncesi dönemde fen eğitimi [Science education in the preschool years]. Vize Publishing.

Alisinanoglu, F., Ozbey, S., & Kahveci, G. (2015). Okul öncesinde fen eğitimi [Science education in the preschool]. Ankara: Pegem Academy Publishing.

Arnold, D. H., Zeljo, A., Doctoroff, G. L., & Ortiz, C. (2008). Parent involvement in pre-school: Predictors and the relation of involvement to pre-literacy development. School Psychology Review, 37(1), 74-90.

Atakan, H. (2010). Participation of family studies in pre-school education according to ideas of teachers and parents. (Unpublished Master Thesis). Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Social Sciences Institute, Çanakkale, Turkey.

Atci, Ş. (2003). Impact of the family participation on the 4th class primary school students success of the subject environment we live. (Unpublished master’s thesis). Marmara University, Educational Sciences Institute, İstanbul, Turkey.

Baeck, U. K. (2015). Beyond the fancy cakes. Teachers’ relationship to home-school cooperation in a study from Norway. International Journal about Parents in Education, 9(1), 37-46.

Büyüköztürk, Ş. (2004). Sosyal bilimler için veri analizi el kitabi [Manual of data analysis for social sciences]. Ankara: Pegem-A Yayınları.

Camlıbel Cakmak, Ö. (2010). Parent involvement in pre-school. Abant Izzet Baysal University Journal of Social Sciences, 20(20), 1-18.

Camarero-Figuerola, M., Dueñas, J. M., & Renta-Davids, A. I. (2020). The relationship between family involvement and academic variables: A systematic review. Research in Social Sciences and Technology, 5(2), 57-71.

Carter, S. (2002). The impact of parent/family involvement of student outcomes: An annotated bibliography of research from the past decade. ERIC Number: ED476296. Washington, DC.

Celenk, S. (2003). Okul başarısının ön koşulu: Okul aile dayanışması [The prerequisite for school success: Home-school cooperation]. Elementary Education Online, 2(2), 28-34.

Cohen, F., & Anders, Y. (2019): Family involvement in early childhood education and care and its effects on the social-emotional and language skills of 3-year-old children. School Effectiveness and School Improvement.

Cui, Y., Zhang, D., & Leung, F. K. S. (2021). The influence of parental educational involvement in early childhood on 4th-grade students’ mathematics achievement. Early Education and Development, 32(1), 113-133.

Daniel, G. (2015). Patterns of parent involvement: A longitudinal analysis of family-school partnerships in the early years of school in Australia. Australasian Journal of Early Childhood, 40(1), 119-128.

DeLoatche, K. J., Bradley Klug, K. L., Ogg, J., Kromrey, J. D., & Sundman Wheat, A. N. (2015). Increasing parent involvement among Head Start families: A randomized control group study. Early Childhood Education Journal, 43, 271–279.

Dere, Z., & Unlu, Z. K. (2020). Examination of parent participation in pre-school science activities. Ahi Evran Üniversitesi Kırşehir Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 21(1), 154-182.

Eliason, C., & Jenkins, L. (2003). A Practical Guide to Early Childhood Curriculum (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Epstein, J. L. (1987a). Parent involvement: What research says to administrators. Education Urban Society, 19(2), 119–136.

Epstein, J. L. (1987b). What principals should know about parent involvement? Principal, 66(3), 6-9.

Epstein, J. L. (1990). School and family connections. Marriage & Family Review, 15:1-2, 99-126.

Epstein, J. L. (1995). School/family/community/ partnerships: caring for the children we share. Phi Delta Kappan, 76(9), 701-712.

Epstein, J. L. (2011). School, family, and community partnerships: Preparing educators and improving schools (2nd ed.). Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Erkan, S., Uludag, G., & Dereli, F. (2016). An investigation on the perceptions of pre-school teachers, school administrators and parents on parent involvement. Ahi Evran University Journal of Kırşehir Education Faculty, 17(1), 221-240.

Fan, X. (2001). Parental involvement and students' academic achievement: A growth modeling analysis. The Journal of Experimental Education, 70(1), 27-61.

Fan, X., & Chen, M. (2001). Parental involvement and students’ academic achievement: A meta-analysis. Educational Psychology Review, 13(1), 1-22.

Fantuzzo, J., McWayne, C., Perry, M. A., & Childs, S. (2004). Multiple dimensions of family involvement and their relations to behavioral and learning competencies for urban, low-income children. School Psychology Review, 33, 467–480.

Fasina, F. F. (2011). The role of parents in early childhood education: A Case Study of Ikeja, Lagos State, Nigeria. Global Journal of Human Social Science, 11(2), 42-52.

Flannagan, J. S., & Rockenbaugh, L. (2010). Curiosity + kindergarten = Future scientists. Science and Children, 48(4), 28-31.

Fleer, M., & Rillero, P. (1999). Family involvement in science education: what are the outcomes for parents and students?. Studies in Science Education, 34(1), 93-114,

Gross, D., Bettencourt, A. F., Taylor, K., Francis, L., Bower, K., & Singleton, D. L. (2020). What is parent engagement in early learning? Depends who you ask. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 29, 747–760.

Harvard Family Research Project. (2006). Family involvement in early childhood education. family involvement makes a difference: Evidence that family involvement promotes school success for every child of every age. Harvard Family Research Project, 1, 1-8.

Handayani, D. A. P., Wirabrata, D. G. F., & Magta, M. (2020). How parents’ academic background can affect Parental involvement in preschooler’s education. Jurnal Pendidikan Anak Usia Dini Undiksha, 8(1), 53-60.

Hilado, A., Kallemeyn, L., Leow, C., Lundy, M., & Israel, M. (2011). Supporting child welfare and parent involvement in pre-school programs. Early Childhood Education Journal, 39, 343–353.

Hofstein, A., & Rosenfeld, S. (1996). Bridging the gap between formal and informal science learning. Studies in Science Education, 28(1), 87-112.

Hu, B. Y., Zou, X., & Ren, L. (2020). Parent-child number application activities predict children's math trajectories from pre-school to primary school. Journal of Educational Psychology, 112(8), 1521–1531.

Jeffries, K. (2012). Increasing parental involvement in early childhood education. University of South Florida.

Ivankova, N. V., Creswell, J. W., & Stick, S. L. (2006). Using mixed-methods sequential explanatory design: From theory to practice. Field Methods, 18(1), 3-20.

Keceli Kaysılı, B. (2008). Parent involvement to improve academic achievement. Ankara University Faculty of Educational Sciences Journal of Special Education, 9(1), 69-86.

Kelly, L. (2015). Is science important in the early years?: Exploring good practice. In D. Stead, & L. Kelly (Eds.), Inspiring science in the early years (pp. 1-15). New York: Open University Press.

Kılıc, R., & Unal, M. (2020). Investigation of parents’ view’s about science and pre-school science activities (Sample of Elazığ province). Mehmet Akif Ersoy University Journal of the Institute of Educational Sciences, 8(10), 1-20.

Kiraz, A., & Aytac, P. (2020). Practices supporting family involvement in pre-school: Family education through science activities. Pamukkale University Journal of University, 50, 226- 246.

Kluczniok, K., & Roßbach, H. G. (2014). Conceptions of educational quality for kindergartens. Zeitschrift für Erziehungswissenschaft, 17, 145–158.

Lehr, F. (2005). Helping your child learn science. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Communications and Outreach. Retrieved from

Marcon, R. A. (1999). Positive relationships between parent school involvement and public school inner-city pre-schoolers’ development and academic performance. School Psychology Review, 28, 395–412.

Marin, D. C., & Bocoş, M. (2017). Factors which influence the involvement of the family in their children’s education at the beginning of the Romanian Primary Education. Educatia 21 Journal, 15(5), 35–39.

Martinez, A. (2015). Parent involvement and its affects on student academic achievement. (Doctoral dissertation).

National Science Teachers Association [NSTA] (1994). Parent involvement in science education. NSTA Board of Directors. Retrieved from

National Science Teachers Association [NSTA] (2009). Parent ınvolvement in science learning. NSTA Board of Directors. Retrieved from

OECD. (2018). The Future of Education and Skills Education 2030: The future we want. Retrieved from

Patton, M. Q. (2014). Qualitative Research & Evaluation Methods [Nitel Araştırma ve Değerlendirme Yontemleri]. Enhancing the Quality and Credibility of Qualitative Studies [Nitel Analizin Kalitesinin ve İnanırlığının Artırılması]. (Celik, S. & Ö. F. Karatas, Trans.). In M. Bütün & S. B. Demir (Trans. Eds.), (pp. 541-598). Pegem Academy Publishing.

Paulu, N., & Martin, M. (1992). Helping your child learn science. USA: Oxford University Press.

Perera, L. D. (2014). Parents’ attitudes towards science and their children’s science achievement. International Journal of Science Education, 36(18), 3021-3041.

Powell, D. R., Son, S., File, N., & San Juan, R. R. (2010). Parent–school relationships and children’s academic and social outcomes in public school pre-kindergarten. Journal of School Psychology, 48(4), 269–292.

Preston, J. P., MacPhee, M. M., & Roach O’Keefe, A. (2018). Kindergarten teachers’ notions of parent involvement and perceived challenges. McGill Journal of Education / Revue Des Sciences De l’éducation De McGill, 53(3).

Prieto, J. P. (2018). Enhancing the quality of early childhood education and care: ECEC tutors’ perspectives of family engagement in Spain. Early Child Development and Care, 188(5), 613-623.

Rodriguez, A. J., Collins-Parks, T., & Garza, J. (2013). Interpreting research on parent involvement and connecting it to the science classroom. Theory into Practice, 52(1), 51-58.

Sackes, M. (2014). Parents who want their PreK children to have science learning experiences are outliers. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 29(2), 132–143.

Sahin, U. (2019). Parents' Participation Types in School Education. International Journal of Educational Methodology, 5(3), 315-324.

Sahin, F. T., & Kalburan, F. N. C. (2009). Parent education programs and their effectiveness: What type of programs are implemented in the world?. Pamukkale University Journal of Education, 25(25), 1-12.

Sahin, C., Uludag, G., Gedikli, E., & Karakaya, L. (2018). Developing of the Scale on Determining Parents’ Views About Science and Pre-school Science Activities. Kastamonu University Kastamonu Education Journal, 26(1), 101-108.

Salli, D., Dagal, A. B., Kucukoglu, E. K., Niran, S. S., & Tezcan, G. (2013). The concept of recycling in pre-school: Example of a project based family involvement programme. Journal of Research in Education and Teaching, 2(2), 234-241.

Sawah, I., & Clark, A. (2015). The everything STEM handbook: Help your child learn and succeed in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and math. USA: F+W Media.

Teddlie, C., & Yu, F. (2007). Mixed methods sampling: A typology with examples. Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 1(1), 77-100.

Tekerci, H. (2020). Erken çocukluk dönemi fen eğitiminde ebeveynin rolü [Role of parent in science education in early childhood]. In G. Uludağ (Ed.), Erken çocukluk döneminde fen eğitimi: Çocuğun keşif yolculuğu [Science education in early childhood: Child's journey of discovery], (pp. 403-432). Ankara: Nobel Academic Publishing.

Uludag, G., & Erkan, N. S. (in press). Effect of the science education program with the activities in the out-of-school learning environments on the science process skills of the 60-72 months old children. Hacettepe University Journal of Education, x(x).

Unuvar, P. (2010). Comparison of parent and teacher opinions about family involvement studies. Kastamonu Journal of Education, 18(3), 719-730.

Veziroglu, M. (2011). Fen eğitiminde ailenin ve toplumun rolü [The role of community and society in science education]. In B. Akman, G. Uyanık Balat & T. Güler (Eds.), Okul öncesi dönemde fen eğitimi [Science education in preschool], (2nd ed.) (pp.163-180). Ankara: Pegem Academy Publishing.

Wasik, B. A., Bond, M. A., & Hindman, A. (2002). Contemporary perspectives on early childhood curriculum. In O. N. Saracho & B. Spodek (Eds.), Effective early childhood curriculum for children at risk. IAP.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 Cigdem Sahin Cakir, Gonca Uludağ

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Published by Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia
in collaboration with the Indonesian Society of Science Educators