Cover Image

The Relation between Gender, Reasons to Participate in STEM-Related Subjects, Programs and The University Supports On First-Year University Student’s Satisfaction: A Structural Equation Model

Ikmanda Nugraha, Tatang Suratno, Asep Kadarohman, Ari Widodo, I Gusti Darmawan


First-year student's satisfaction has considered an important factor in the quality education offered by the university program. The objective of this study is to investigate the relationship among gender, a reason to participate in STEM-related subjects, program, and the university support on first-year student's satisfaction of STEM learning. The methods used in this study surveyed student's satisfaction using adapted interest and recruitment in the science questionnaire (IRIS Q) instrument. The questionnaire comprised question items covering school science experiences, sources of inspiration for the choice of education, expectations for future job, first-year experiences as a STEM student, and attitudes to gender equity in STEM. A total of 448 students, first-year students from STEM-related programs, have participated voluntarily in this study. The structural equating model assisted by computer program IBM SPSS Amos 20 was employed to analyze the hypothesized model. The results from the model showed that reason and university support have a positive direct effect on first-year students' satisfaction with STEM learning. From this study, it is suggested for the university to improve first-year student's satisfaction by helping STEM students to develop appropriate expectations of the program, facilitating teaching quality to meet STEM students' learning, and assisting students in developing positive attitudes toward their future carriers.

Full Text:

Download PDF


Ahmed, S., & Mehedi Masud, M. (2014). Measure Service Quality of a Higher Educational Institute towards Student Satisfaction. American Journal of Educational Research, 2(7), 447–455.

Al-Sheeb, B., Hamouda, A. M., & Abdella, G. M. (2018). Investigating Determinants of Student Satisfaction in the First Year of College in a Public University in the State of Qatar. Education Research International, 2018(1-14).

Arbuckle, J. L. (2011). IBM SPSS AMOS. Chicago: SPSS.

Archambault, L. Z. (2008). Measuring Service Performance, Student Satisfaction and its Impact on Student Retention in Private, Post-Secondary Institutions. EDU-COM International Conference. Sustainability in Higher Education: Directions for Change., (November), 19–21. Retrieved from

Billups, F. D. (2008). Measuring College Student Satisfaction: A Multi- Year Study of the Factors Leading to Persistence Measuring College Student Satisfaction: A Multi-Year Study of the Factors Leading to Persistence. NERA Conference Proceedings, Paper 14. Retrieved from

Burgess, A., Senior, C., & Moores, E. (2018). A 10-year case study on the changing determinants of university student satisfaction in the UK. PLoS ONE, 13(2), 1–15.

Camgoz-akdag, H., & Zaim, S. (2012). Education : a comparative structural equation modeling study. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 47, 874–880.

Chang, Y., & Park, S. W. (2014). Exploring Students ’ Perspectives of College STEM : An Analysis of Course Rating Websites. International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, 26(1), 90–101. Retrieved from

Crisp, G., Palmer, E., Turnbull, D., Nettelbeck, T., Ward, L., LeCouteur, A., … Schneider, L. (2009). First year student expectations: Results from a university-wide student survey. Journal of University Teaching and Learning Practice, 6(1), 13–26. Retrieved from

Douglas, J., Douglas, A., & Barnes, B. (2006). Measuring student satisfaction at a UK university. Quality Assurance in Education, 14(3), 251–167.

Duong, M.-Q. (2015). The Factors Influencing Student Satisfaction in Vietnamese Higher Education. International Research in Education, 4(1), 27.

Dyana, M. L., & Adeline, Y. L. (2014). Student satisfaction with the service quality of cafeteria: a structural approach, 4(1), 105–111.

Elhadary, O. (2016a). Gender and other Determinants of Undergraduate Student Satisfaction in STEM, 15(3), 256–264.

Elhadary, O. (2016b). Student Satisfaction in STEM : An Exploratory Study, 4(2), 195–199.

Grebennikov, L., & Skaines, I. (2009). Gender and higher education experience: A case study. Higher Education Research & Development, 28(1), 71–84.

Green, H. J., Hood, M., & Neumann, D. L. (2015). Predictors of student satisfaction with university psychology courses: A review. Psychology Learning and Teaching, 14(2), 131–146.

Gruber, T., Fuß, S., Voss, R., & Gläser‐Zikuda, M. (2010). Examining student satisfaction with higher education services. International Journal of Public Sector Management, 23(2), 105–123.

Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2014). Multivariate data analysis (7th ed.). Harlow: Pearson Education Limited.

Hakim, A. (2014). Nursing students’ satisfaction about their field of study. Journal of Advances in Medical Education & Professionalism, 2(2), 82–7. Retrieved from

Hooper, D., Coughlan, J., & Mullen, M. (2008). Structural Equation Modelling : Guidelines for Determining Model Fit Structural equation modelling : guidelines for determining model fit. Electronic Journal of Business Research Methods, 6(1), 53–60.

Ijaz, A., Irfan, S. M., Shahbaz, S., Awan, M., & Sabir, M. (2011). An empirical model of student satisfaction : case of pakistani public sector business schools, VII(Ii), 91–116.

Josephat, P., Ismail, A., & Martin, P. (2014). Undergraduate Students ’ Satisfaction Survey at the University of Dodoma, 3(2), 45–53.

Khalil-Ur-Rehman, F., Farooq, M., & Younas, W. (2018). Investigating the Factors Impacting the Student Satisfaction with the Universities In the Era of Artificial Intelligence: A Comparative Study of Malaysia and Pakistan. The Journal of Social Sciences Research, 2(3), 5–9.

Li, I. W., & Carroll, D. R. (2017). Factors Influencing University Student Satisfaction, Dropout and Academic Performance, 56.

Lo, C. (2010). How Student Satisfaction Factors Affect Perceived Learning. Journal of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 10(1), 47–54. Retrieved from

Mehdipour, Y., & Zerehkafi, H. (2013). Student Satisfaction at Osmania University. International Journal of Advancements in Research & Technology, 2(6), 233–240.

Möller, O. (2006). Student satisfaction survey: The Utrecht University approach. Tertiary Education and Management, 12(4), 323–328.

Naaj, M. A., Nachouki, M., & Ankit, A. (2012). Evaluating Student Satisfaction with Blended Learning in a Gender-Segregated Environment. Journal of Information Technology Education: Research, 11, 185–200. Retrieved from

Pawson, C. (2012). HEA STEM Conference STEM vs . non-STEM programmes. Psychology Teaching Review, 18(2), 16–21.

Schreiber, J. B. (2008). Core reporting practices in structural equation modeling. Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy, 4(2), 83–97.

Sembiring, M. G. (2016). Student Satisfaction and Persistence : Imperative Features for Retention in Open and Distance Learning. Asian Association of Open Universities Journal, 10(1), 1–11.

Shulman, L. s. (1987). Knowledge and teaching: Foundations of the new reform. Harvard Educational Review, 57(1), 1–22.

Suarman, Aziz, Z., & Yasin, R. M. (2013). The quality of teaching and learning towards the satisfaction among the university students. Asian Social Science, 9(12 SPL ISSUE), 252–260.

Son, H. T., Ha, N. T., Thi, P., & Khuyen, M. (2018). Measuring Students’ satisfaction with higher education service-An experimental study at Thainguyen University. Www.Ijbmm.Com International Journal of Business Marketing and Management, 3(4), 2456–4559. Retrieved from

Tandilashvili, N. (2019). Education. The Case of a Georgian State University. In RAIS Conference Proceedings (pp. 39–54).

Wilkins, S., Balakrishnan, M., & Huisman, J. (2012). Student satisfaction and student perceptions of quality at international branch campuses in the United Arab Emirates. Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management, 34(5), 543–556.

Zhou, H. (2016). Empirical Study on University Curriculum Satisfaction of University Graduates. Open Journal of Social Sciences, 4(January), 132–137.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2020 Ikmanda Nugraha, Tatang Suratno, Asep Kadarohman, Ari Widodo, I Gusti Darmawan

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Published by Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia
in collaboration with the Indonesian Society of Science Educators