Radicalism of University Students: An Analysis of Causal Factors and Models of Radicalization

Sri Wahyuni Tanshzil, Karim Suryadi, Kokom Komalasari, Leni Anggraeni


This study aims to determine the causal factors and models of radicalization among the young generation. The research data were processed from various kinds of literature using several specified procedures, including the process of compiling, analyzing, and drawing conclusions from multiple reputable national and international journals relevant and online news portals related to radicalism among students. The results of the research show that radicalization occurs at two primary levels, namely micro and macro. As well as specifically caused by push, pull, and personal factors. The tendency of vulnerable individuals (students) to be affiliated with radical groups because the process of radicalization that is formed through phases or stages becomes increasingly radical. The process starts from the phase of sensitivity to deviant ideology, changes in behavior, joining radical groups, and ending in acts of violence (terrorism).


University students, radicalization; micro factors and macro factors; radicalization models


Ahmad, F., & Monaghan, J. (2019). Mapping Criminological Engagements Within Radicalization Studies. The British Journal of Criminology. Doi: . https://doi.org/10.1093/bjc/azz023

Atkins, R., & Hart, D. (2003). Neighborhoods, adults, and the development of civic identity in urban youth. Applied Developmental Science, 7(3), 156–164.

Awan, Spiller & Whiting. (2019). Terrorism in Classroom: Security, Surveillance and a Public Duty to Act. UK; University of the West of England

Azca, M., (2013). Yang Muda, Yang Radikal: Refleksi Sosiologi terhadap Fenomena Radikalisme Kaum Muda Muslim di Indonesia Pasca Orde Baru. Jurnal Maarif Institute. Vol. 8, No.1 Juli 2013

Bakker, E. (2006). Jihadi terrorists in Europe, their characteristics and the circumstances in which they joined the jihad: an exploratory study. Clingendael Security Paper, The Hague, Clingendael Institute).

Baumeister, R. F., Twenge, J. M., & Nuss, C. K. (2002). Effects of social exclusion on cognitive processes: Anticipated aloneness reduces intelligent thought. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83,(4): 817–827.

Bergen D Van, Feddes AR, Pels T, Doosje B. (2015). Collective identity factors and the attitude to ethnic or religious in-group violence in Muslim youth of Turkish and Moroccan descent. Int. J of Intercultural Rel, 47: 89-100.

Bjørgo, T. (2012). Processes of disengagement from different types of extremist and criminal groups. Paper presented at the Exit conference. Leaving extremist and criminal groups: Scandinavian experiences on disengagement and reintegration into society. Stockholm.

Borum, R. (2015). Psychology of Terrorism, Psychology of Terrorism Initiative. University of South Florida.

Bruinessen. (2002). “Genealogies of Islamic Radicalism in Post-Soeharto Indonesia”. South East Asia Research 10 (2): 117-154.

Buijs, F.J., Demant, F. & Hamdy, A. (2006). Strijders van eigen bodem. Radicale en democratische moslims in Nederland, Amsterdam University Press.

Choudhury, T. (2007). The Role of Muslim Identity Politics in Radicalisation (A Study in Progress). London: Department for Communities and Local Government.

Cnnindonesia.com. (2019). https://www.cnnindonesia.com/nasional/20180530111844-20-302170/, diakses pada 27 April 2023.

Cohen, A.K. & Short, J. (1958). Research in Delinquent Subcultures, Journal of Social Issues (14) 3, p. 20-37.

Crayton, J. W. (1983). Terrorism and Psychology of the Self. L. Z. Freedman, & Y. Alexander (Eds), Perspectives on Terrorism. Wilmington, Delaware: Scholarly Resources (pp. 33- 41).

Crenshaw, M. (1998). ‘The Logic of Terrorism: Terrorist Behavior as a Product of Strategic Choice’, in W. Reich (ed.) Origins of Terrorism: Psychologies, Ideologies, Theologies, States of Mind, Washington: Woodrow Wilson Center Press.

Crosby. (1976). A Model of egoistical relative deprivation. Psychological Review, 83: 85-112.

Deci, E. L. & Ryan, R. M. (1991) A motivational approach to self: integration in personality, in: R. A. Dienstbier (Ed.) Nebraska symposium on motivation, 1990: perspectives on motivation (Lincoln, University of Nebraska Press), 237–288.

Davies, J. C. (1962). ‘Towards a Theory of Revolution’, American Sociological Review, Vol. 27, pp. 5-18.

DeMause, L. (2002). ‘The childhood origins of terrorism’, Journal of Psychohistory, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 340 – 348.

Doosje B, Van den Bos K, Loseman A. (2013). Radicalization process of Islamic youth in the Netherlands: The role of uncertainty, perceived injustice and perceived group threat. Journa of Social Issues, 2013, 69: 586-604.

Doosje, F.M. Moghaddam, A.W. Kruglanski, A. de Wolf, L. Mann, A.R. Feddes. (2016). “Terrorism, Radicalization and De-radicalization”. COPSYC. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.copsyc.2016.06.008.

Eatwell, R. and Goodwin, M.J. (eds.) (2010). The New Extremism in 21st Century Britain. London: Routledge.

Ellemers, N., R. Spears & B. Doosje (2002). ‘Self and Social Identity’. Annual Review of Psychology, vol. 53, pp. 161-186.

Feddes AR, Mann L, Doosje B. (2013). Empirical study as part of a scientific approach to finding indicators of and responses to radicalisation (SAFIRE). Report presented to the European Commission.

Festinger, L., S. Schachter & K. Back. (1963). Social Pressures in Informal Groups. New York: Harper.

Fischer, A. H., & Roseman, I. J. (2007). Beat them or ban them: The characteristics and social functions of anger and contempt. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 93, 103-115.

Frijda, N. (2007). The laws of emotion. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Ginges J, Atran S, Sachdeva S, Medin D. (2011). Psychology out of the laboratory: The challenge of violent extremism. American Psychologist, 66: 507–519.

García, S., & Talavero, V. (2019). A sociological approach to the extremist radicali- zation in islam: The need for indicators. International Journal of Intelligence, Security and Public Affars. 21(1), 66e83. https://doi.org/10.1080/23800992.2019.1598096.

Gurlesin, O., et all., (2020). Playful Religion: An Innovative Approach to Prevent Radicalisation of Muslim Youth in Europe. Religious Journal 2020, 11, 67; doi:10.3390/rel11020067

Gurr, T. (1970). Why men rebel. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Hasan, Noorhaidi. (2006) Laskar Jihad; Islam, Militancy and the Quest for Identity in Post-New Order Indonesia. Ithaca: Cornell University Southeast Program Publications.

Heidi B. Ellis and Saida Abdi. (2017). “Building Community Resilience to Violent Extremism Through Genuine Partnerships”. American Psychologist (72)3, 289- 300) https://www.apa.org/pubs/journals/releases/amp-amp0000065.pdf.

Hibbs, D, (1973). Mass Political Violence: A Crossnational Causal Analysis. New York: Wiley.

Hogg MA, Kruglanksi A, van den Bos K. (2013). Uncertainty and the roots of extremism. Journal of Social Issues, 69: 407–418.

Huda, U., Haryanto, T., & Haryanto. (2018). Strategi Penanggulangan Radikalisme Di Perguruan Tinggi Kabupaten Banyumas. Prosiding Seminar Nasional dan Call for Papers ”Pengembangan Sumber Daya Perdesaan dan Kearifan Lokal Berkelanjutan VIII” 14-15 November 2018 Purwokerto No. ISBN: 978-602-643-617.

Khan, Z., Ullah, R., & Kamal, U., (2020). Pathways of Youth Radicalization in Pashtun Society: Applying the Anomie and Strain Theory. Liberal Arts and Social Sciences International Journal (LASSIJ) https://doi.org/10.47264/idea.lassij/3.2.17 Vol. 3, No. 2, (July-December) 2019, 150-157 https://www.ideapublishers.org/lassij

Kompas. (2021). Catatan Tragedi Bom Thamrin Direncanakan di Penjara Dieksekusi Residivis. Diakses pada https://jeo.kompas.com/catatan-tragedibom-thamrin-direncanakan-di-penjara-dieksekusi-residivis. Tanggal, 28 April 2023.

Kompas.com. (2021). 552 Aksi Teror Terjadi Sejak tauh 2000, terbanyak era SBY. https://doi.org/10.1080/2578983X.2019.1685805

Kruglanski, A.W. Pierro, A. Mannetti, L. & De Grada, E. (2014). Groups as Epistemic Providers: Need for Closure and the Unfolding of Group-Centrism. Psychological Review, 113 (1): 84-100.

Kruglanski, A.W., Chen, X., Dechesne, M., Fishman, S. & Orehek, E. (2009). Fully Committed: Suicide Bombers’ Motivation and the Quest for Personal Significance. Political Psychology. 30 (3): 331-357.

LIPI. (2018). BIN: 39 Persen Mahasiswa Terpengaruh Paham Radikal. Diakses pada http://lipi.go.id/lipimedia/bin:-39-persen-mahasiswa-terpengaruh-paham-radikal/20439. Tanggal, 28 April 2023.

Pauwels, L., Brion, F., Schils, Laffineur, Verhage, et. al. (2015). Explaining and understanding the role of exposure to new social media on violent extremism: an integrative quantitative and qualitative approach. Academia Press : Gent (2015) (ISBN:9789038223988) 233 pages http://hdl.handle.net/2078.1/156547

Mackie, D. M., Devos, T., & Smith, E. R. (2000). Intergroup emotions: Explaining offensive action tendencies in an intergroup context. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 79, 602–616.

Magariño, S. G., & Cabrera, V. T., (2019)

A Sociological Approach to the Extremist Radicalization in Islam: The Need for Indicators, The International Journal of Intelligence, Security, and Public Affairs, 21:1, 66-83, DOI: 10.1080/23800992.2019.1598096

Marrranci, G. (2006). Jihad Beyond Islam. Oxford, New York: Berg Moghaddam FM: How globalization spurs terrorism. Praeger; 2008

Mattei, C., & Zeiger S., (2009). Factors Contributing to Radicalization A Conceptual Framework. Hedayah CVE-Cycle Framework.

McGlynn & McDaid. (2016). Radicalisation and higher education: Students’ understanding and experiences. DOI: 10.1080/09546553.2016.1258637

Meehan, C., & Meehan, P. (2019). Exploring the role of ‘RE’ in early childhood ed- ucation and care as a response to the PREVENT agenda in England. Early Child Development and Care, 189(7), 1174e1188. https://doi.org/10.1080/ 03004430.2017.1369978.

Merton, R. (1938). Social Structure and Anomie. American Sociological Review.

Moghaddam FM, Heckenlaible V, Blackman M, Fasano S, Dufour D. (2005). Globalization and terrorism: The primacy of collective processes. In Social psychology of good and evil Edited by Miller A. Guilford: in press: Praeger.

Noel JG, Wann DL, Branscombe NR. (2016). Peripheral ingroup membership status and public negativity toward outgroups. J of Pers and Soc Psychol, 1995, 68: 127-137.

Pape, R.A. (2006). ‘Suicide terrorism and democracy. What we’ve learned since 9/11’, Policy Analysis, pp. 582. Cato Institute.

PET. (2009). Center for Terroranalyse (CTA) ‘Radikalisering og terror ‘, available online at: http://www.pet.dk/upload/radikalisering_og_terror.pdf

Post, J.M. (1998). ‘Terrorist Psycho-Logic: Terrorist Behavior as a Product of Psychological Forces’ in W. Reich (ed.), Origins of Terrorism: Psychologies, Ideologies, Theologies, States of Mind. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 25–40

Postmes, T., & Baym, N. (2005). Intergroup dimensions of Internet. In Harwood & Giles (Eds.), Intergroup communication: Multiple perspectives. New York: Peter Lang Publishers.

Rahimullah, R. H., Larmar, S., & Abdalla, M. (2013). Understanding Violent Radicalization amongst Muslims : A Review of the Literature. Journal of Psychology and Behavioral Science, 1(1), 19–35. http://jpbsnet.com/journals/jpbs/Vol_1_No_1_December_2013/3.pdf

Richardson, L. (2006). What terrorists want. Understanding the terrorist threat. London: John Murray.

Sageman, M. (2004). Understanding terror networks. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Saifuddin. (2011). Radikalisme di Kalangan Mahasiswa (Sebuah Metamorfosa Baru). Analisis, Volume XI, Nomor 1, 17-32.

Sardoč, M., Coady, Bufacchi, V., Moghaddam, F.M., Cassam, Q., Silva, D., Miščević, N., Andrejč, G., Kodelja, Z.,

Vezjak , B., Peters, M.A., & Tesar, M., (2021): Philosophy of education in a new key: On radicalization and violent extremism. Educational Philosophy and Theory, DOI: 10.1080/00131857.2020.1861937

Sarraj, E. (2002) ‘Why We Blow Ourselves Up’, Time Magazine, vol. 159, no. 14, pp. 35-42

Schmid A. P. (2013a), Radicalisation, De-Radicalisation, Counter-Radicalisation: A Conceptual Discussion and Literature Review, The Hague, ICCT. DOI: 10.19165/2013.1.02.

DOI : 10.19165/2013.1.02

Schmid, A. (2016). Radicalisation, de-radicalisation, counter-radicalisation: A conceptual discussion and literature review. ICCT Research Paper.

Silber, M. D. & A. Bhatt. (2007). ‘Radicalisation in the West: The Homegrown Threat’, The New York City Police Department.

Silke, A. (1998). Cheshire-cat logic: The recurring theme of terrorist abnormality in psychological research, Psychology, Crime and Law, vol. 4, pp. 51 – 69.

Simpson, M. (2014). Terrorism and Corruption. International Journal of Sociology, 44(2), 87–104.

Smith, E. Seger, C.R. & Mackie, D. (2007). Can Emotions Be Truly Group Level? Evidence Regarding Four Conceptual Criteria, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 93 (3), 431–446.

Suyanto, B., Sirry, M., & Sugihartati R., (2019): Pseudo- Radicalism and the De-Radicalization of Educated Youth in Indonesia, Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, DOI: 10.1080/1057610X.2019.1654726

Spaaij R. (2010). The enigma of lone wolf terrorism: An assessment. Study in Conflict & Terrorism, 2010, 33: 854-870.

Swann W, Jetten J, Gómez Á, Whitehouse H, Bastian B. (2012). When group membership gets personal: a theory of identity fusion. Psychological Review, 119: 441–456.

Tajfel, H., & J.C. Turner. (1979). ‘An integrative theory of intergroup conflict’ In W. G. Austin, & S. Worchel (Eds.) The social psychology of intergroup relations. Monterey, CA: Brooks-Cole, pp. 33–47.

Taylor, M. and Horgan, J. (2006). ‘A Conceptual Framework for Understanding Psychological Process in the Development of the Terrorist’, Terrorism and Political Violence, 18 (4), 585- 601.

Tempo. (2018). “Paham Radikal di Kampus Kita”. Majalah edisi 28, hal 49.

Tusini, Stefania. (2019). Reading religious radicalization by Merton’s strain theory. Open Edition Journals Guaderni di sociologia. 81-LXIII. https://doi.org/10.4000/qds.3498

Twenge, J.M., K.R. Catanese, R.F. Baumeister (2002) ‘Social exclusion causes self-defeating behavior’, Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, Vol. 83, no. 3, pp. 606-615

Veldhuis, T. & Staun, J. (2009). Islamist Radicalization: A Root Cause Model. Den Haag: The Hague, Netherlands Institute of International Relations Clingendael.

Vergani, M., Iqbal, M., Ilbahar, E., & Barton, G. (2018): The Three Ps of Radicalization: Push, Pull and Personal. A Systematic Scoping Review of the Scientific Evidence about Radicalization Into Violent Extremism, Studies in Conflict & Terrorism Journal, DOI: 10.1080/1057610X.2018.1505686

Victoroff, J. (2005). The mind of the terrorist: a review and critique of psychological approaches. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 49(1), 3–42.

Webber D, Klein K, Kruglanski A, Brizi A, Merari A. (2001). Divergent paths to martyrdom and significance among suicide attackers. Terrorism and Political Violence, in press.

Webster, D. M., & Kruglanski, A. W. (1994). Individual differences in need for cognitive closure. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 1049-1062

Weimann, G. (2006). Virtual Disputes: The Use of the Internet for Terrorist Debates. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 29: 623–639

DOI: https://doi.org/10.17509/t.v10i1.57271


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2023 TARBAWY : Indonesian Journal of Islamic Education

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.






Tarbawy is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.