Skin Hypersensitivity and Precipitating Antibodies Against Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis

Amtul Naseer, Hafiz UL Huda, Khalida Naseem


Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is a very fatal disease and more than four million people have been affected. We collected data of forty-five patients and a skin hypersensitivity test was performed. We also evaluated precipitating antibodies against Aspergillus fumigatus. Instant hypersensitivity reactions were recorded in 22.22% of patients and 6.66% displayed delayed type III reaction. 4.44% of patients exhibited precipitin bands and three infections of ABPA among 45 infected people. A literature survey was also made to understand Aspergillus fumigatus.


Allergic; Aspergillus fumigatus; Education; Health; Lung

Full Text:



Patterson, K. and Strek, M. E. (2010). Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. Proceedings of the American Thoracic Society, 7(3), 237-244.

Stevens, D. A., Schwartz, H. J., Lee, J. Y., Moskovitz, B. L., Jerome, D. C., Catanzaro, A., Bamberger. D. M., Weinman. A. J., Tuazon. C. U., Judson. M. A., Platts-Mills. Y. A. E. and DeGraff Jr, A. C. (2000). A randomized trial of itraconazole in allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. New England Journal of Medicine, 342(11), 756-762.

Beswick, E., Amich, J. and Gago, S. (2020). Factoring in the complexity of the cystic fibrosis lung to understand Aspergillus fumigatus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa interactions. Pathogens, 9(8), 639.

Murrison, L. B., Brandt, E. B., Myers, J. B. and Hershey, G. K. K. (2019). Environmental exposures and mechanisms in allergy and asthma development. The Journal of clinical investigation, 129(4), 1504-1515.

Paulussen, C., Hallsworth, J. E., Álvarez‐Pérez, S., Nierman, W. C., Hamill, P. G., Blain, D., Rediers. H. and Lievens, B. (2017). Ecology of aspergillosis: Insights into the pathogenic potency of Aspergillus fumigatus and some other Aspergillus species. Microbial Biotechnology, 10(2), 296-322.

Rokas, A., Mead, M. E., Steenwyk, J. L., Oberlies, N. H. and Goldman, G. H. (2020). Evolving moldy murderers: Aspergillus section Fumigati as a model for studying the repeated evolution of fungal pathogenicity. PLoS Pathogens, 16(2), e1008315.

Denning, D. W. and Perlin, D. S. (2011). Azole resistance in Aspergillus: A growing public health menace. Future Microbiology, 6(11), 1229-1232.

Kramer, R., Sauer-Heilborn, A., Welte, T., Guzman, C. A., Abraham, W. R. and Höfle, M. G. (2015). Cohort study of airway mycobiome in adult cystic fibrosis patients: Differences in community structure between fungi and bacteria reveal predominance of transient fungal elements. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 53(9), 2900-2907.

Knutsen, A. P., Bush, R. K., Demain, J. G., Denning, D. W., Dixit, A., Fairs, A., Greenberger. P. A., Kariuki. B., Kita. H., Kurup. V. P., Moss. R. B., Niven R. M., Pashley. C. H., Slavin. R. G., Vijay. H. M. and Wardlaw, A. J. (2012). Fungi and allergic lower respiratory tract diseases. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 129(2), 280-291.

Denning, D. W., O'driscoll, B. R., Hogaboam, C. M., Bowyer, P. and Niven, R. M. (2006). The link between fungi and severe asthma: a summary of the evidence. European Respiratory Journal, 27(3), 615-626.

Eng, S. S. and DeFelice, M. L. (2016). The role and immunobiology of eosinophils in the respiratory system: A comprehensive review. Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology, 50(2), 140-158.

Agarwal, R., Hazarika, B., Gupta, D., Aggarwal, A. N., Chakrabarti, A. and Jindal, S. K. (2010). Aspergillus hypersensitivity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: COPD as a risk factor for ABPA?. Medical Mycology, 48(7), 988-994.

Bongomin, F., Gago, S., Oladele, R. O. and Denning, D. W. (2017). Global and multi-national prevalence of fungal diseases—estimate precision. Journal of Fungi, 3(4), 57.

Agarwal, R., Chakrabarti, A., Shah, A., Gupta, D., Meis, J. F., Guleria, R., Moss. R., Denning. D. W. and ABPA Complicating Asthma ISHAM Working Group. (2013). Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis: Review of literature and proposal of new diagnostic and classification criteria. Clinical and Experimental Allergy, 43(8), 850-873.

Polosa, R. (2008). An overview of chronic severe asthma. Internal Medicine Journal, 38(3), 190-198.

Carsin, A., Romain, T., Ranque, S., Reynaud‐Gaubert, M., Dubus, J. C., Mège, J. L. and Vitte, J. (2017). Aspergillus fumigatus in cystic fibrosis: An update on immune interactions and molecular diagnostics in allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. Allergy, 72(11), 1632-1642.

Singh, M., Paul, N., Singh, S. and Nayak, G. R. (2018). Asthma and fungus: Role in allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) and other conditions. The Indian Journal of Pediatrics, 85(10), 899-904.

Humbert, M., Bousquet, J., Bachert, C., Palomares, O., Pfister, P., Kottakis, I., Jaumont. X., Thomsen. S. F. and Papadopoulos, N. G. (2019). IgE-mediated multimorbidities in allergic asthma and the potential for omalizumab therapy. The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice, 7(5), 1418-1429.

Carrillo-Muñoz, A. J., Quindós, G. and Lopez-Ribot, J. L. (2004). Current developments in anti-fungal agents. Current Medicinal Chemistry-Anti-Infective Agents, 3(4), 297-323.

Stevens, D. A., Moss, R. B., Kurup, V. P., Knutsen, A. P., Greenberger, P., Judson, M. A., Denning. D. W., Crameri. R., Brody. A. S., Light. M., Sknov. M., Maish. W., Mastella. G. and Participants in the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Consensus Conference. (2003). Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis in cystic fibrosis—state of the art: Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Consensus Conference. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 37(3), S225-S264.

Abad, A., Fernández-Molina, J. V., Bikandi, J., Ramírez, A., Margareto, J., Sendino, J., Hernando. F. L., Ponton. J., Garaizar. J. and Rementeria, A. (2010). What makes Aspergillus fumigatus a successful pathogen? Genes and molecules involved in invasive aspergillosis. Revista Iberoamericana De Micologia, 27(4), 155-182.

Agarwal, R., Sehgal, I. S., Dhooria, S. and Aggarwal, A. N. (2016). Developments in the diagnosis and treatment of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine, 10(12), 1317-1334.

Tracy, M. C., Okorie, C. U., Foley, E. A. and Moss, R. B. (2016). Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. Journal of Fungi, 2(2), 17.

Øya, E., Becher, R., Ekeren, L., Afanou, A. K., Øvrevik, J. and Holme, J. A. (2019). Pro-inflammatory responses in human bronchial epithelial cells induced by spores and hyphal fragments of common damp indoor molds. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16(6), 1085.

Asano, K., Hebisawa, A., Ishiguro, T., Takayanagi, N., Nakamura, Y., Suzuki, J., Okada. N., Tanaka. J., Fukutomi. Y., Ueki. S., Fukunaga. K., Konno. S., Matsuse. H., Kamei. K., Tanaguchi. M., Shimoda. T., Oguma. T. and Program, J. A. R. (2021). New clinical diagnostic criteria for allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis/mycosis and its validation. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 147(4), 1261-1268.

Souza, J. A. M., Baltazar, L. D. M., Carregal, V. M., Gouveia-Eufrasio, L., Oliveira, A. G. D., Dias, W. G. and Soriani, F. M. (2019). Corrigendum: Characterization of aspergillus fumigatus extracellular vesicles and their effects on macrophages and neutrophils functions. Frontiers in Microbiology, 10, 2334.

Kwon-Chung, K. J. and Sugui, J. A. (2013). Aspergillus fumigatus—what makes the species a ubiquitous human fungal pathogen?. PloS Pathogens, 9(12), e1003743.

Pegorie, M., Denning, D. W. and Welfare, W. (2017). Estimating the burden of invasive and serious fungal disease in the United Kingdom. Journal of Infection, 74(1), 60-71.

Michaels, R. A. (2017). Environmental Moisture, Molds, and Asthma—Emerging Fungal Risks in the Context of Climate Change. Environmental Claims Journal, 29(3), 171-193.

Bourdin, A., Adcock, I., Berger, P., Bonniaud, P., Chanson, P., Chenivesse, C., Blic. J. D., Deschildre. A., Devillier. P., Devouassoux. G., Didier. A., Garcia. G., Magnan. A., Martinat. Y., Perez. T., Roche. N., Taillé. C., Val. P. and Chanez, P. (2020). How can we minimise the use of regular oral corticosteroids in asthma?. European Respiratory Review, 29(155).



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 1970 Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

ASEAN Journal of Science and Engineering (AJSE) is published by UPI 

View My Stats