Gastric Cancer Associated Risk Factors and Prevalence in Pakistan

Areeba Yousaf, Nerum Tasneem, Aqsa Mustafa, Ramsh Fatima, N. Nabia, Raza Ahmad Khan, Hafiz Abdulbasit, Muhammad Abubakar, A. Asadullah, Rana Rizwan, B. Baqa-ur-Rehman


Gastric cancer (GC) is the most lethal disease of all cancer types. In the last three decades, it has become the most common reason for death among all cancer types. Gastric cancer is at the fourth number in all over the world and annually 8,00,000 deaths are reported. Female gastric cancer has been increased in the last 5 years. Unexpected diversity has been noted in GC spreaders in the whole world. Eastern Europe, China, and South America are the major regions of Gastric cancer prevalence. Its main sources are correlated with 2 agents, dietary intake and Helicobacter pylori infection. Although in south Asia occurrence of H. Pylori is high but less prevalence risk. The sole methods to minimize the prevalence of gastric cancer include elimination of Pylori, standard hygienic condition, proper diet, and improved living standards. One of the most common and complicated factors of gastric cancer is infection with Pylori. The main intention of this article is to elaborate the concerned review of GC and up-to-date information about its occurrence moreover its risk aspects in Pakistan.


Dysphagia; Gastric cancer; Helicobacter pylori; Prevalence; Risk factors

Full Text:



Afridi, S. P., and Bano, F. (2011). Pattern and presentation of carcinoma stomach. Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons--Pakistan: JCPSP, 21(3), 161-163.

Ahmad, T., Sohail, K., Rizwan, M., Mukhtar, M., Bilal, R., and Khanum, A. (2009). Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori pathogenicity-associated cagA and vacA genotypes among Pakistani dyspeptic patients. FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology, 55(1), 34-38.

Ahmad, Z., Idrees, R., Azad, N. S., Ahmed, R., Ahsan, A., and Asghar, N. (2007). Gastric carcinoma: typing, staging, lymph node and resection margin status on gastrectomy specimens. Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons--Pakistan: JCPSP, 17(9), 539-542.

Alireza, S., Mehdi, N., Ali, M., Alireza, M., Reza, M., and Parkin, D. (2005). Cancer occurrence in Iran in 2002, an international perspective. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, 6(3), 359.

Aoki, K. (2006). Early history of cancer epidemiology and prevention in Japan. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, 7(2), 170.

Atrkar-Roushan, Z., Kazemnejad, A., Mansour-Ghanaei, F., and Zayeri, F. (2013). Trend analysis of gastrointestinal cancer incidences in Guilan province: comparing rates over 15 years. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, 14(12), 7587-7593.

Babaei, M., Mousavi, S., Malek, M., Tosi, G., Zolfaghari, M., Danaei, N., and Gafar, G. (2005). Cancer occurrence in Semnan Province, Iran: results of a population-based cancer registry. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, 6, 159-164.

Basiri, Z., Safaralizadeh, R., Bonyadi, M. J., Somi, M. H., Mahdavi, M., and Latifi-Navid, S. (2014). Helicobacter pylori vacA d1 genotype predicts risk of gastric adenocarcinoma and peptic ulcers in northwestern Iran. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, 15(4), 1575-1579.

Bhurgri, Y., Faridi, N., Kazi, L. A. G., Ali, S. K., Bhurgri, H., Usman, A., Malik, J., Bhurgri, A., Ahmed, R., Muzaffar, S., Kayani, N., Pervez, S., and Hasan, S. H. (2004). Cancer esophagus Karachi 1995-2002: epidemiology, risk factors and trends. Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association, 54(7), 345-348.

Byrne, J. P., Mathers, J. M., Parry, J. M., Attwood, S. E. A., Bancewicz, J., and Woodman, C. B. J. (2002). Site distribution of oesophagogastric cancer. Journal of Clinical Pathology, 55(3), 191-194.

Campos, F. I., Koriyama, C., Akiba, S., Carrasquilla, G., Serra, M., Carrascal, E., Itoh, T., Minakami, Y., and Eizuru, Y. (2006). Environmental factors related to gastric cancer associated with Epstein-Barr virus in Colombia. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, 7(4), 633-637.

Chong, V. H., Telisinghe, P. U., Abdullah, M. S., and Chong, C. F. (2014). Gastric cancer in Brunei Darussalam: epidemiological trend over a 27year period (1986-2012). Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, 15(17), 7281-7285.

Cocco, P., Palli, D., Buiatti, E., Cipriani, F., DeCarli, A., Manca, P., Ward, M. H., Blot, W. J., and Fraumeni, J. F. (1994). Occupational exposures as risk factors for gastric cancer in Italy. Cancer Causes and Control, 5(3), 241-248.

Ejaz, S., Akram, W., Lim, C. W., Lee, J. J., and Hussain, I. (2004). Endocrine disrupting pesticides: a leading cause of cancer among rural people in Pakistan. Experiment Oncology, 26(2), 98-105.

Jedrychowski, W., Wahrendorf, J., Popiela, T., and Rachtan J. (1986). A case-control study of dietary factors and stomach cancer risk in Poland. International Journal of Cancer, 37(6), 837–842.

Karami, N., Talebkhan, Y., Saberi, S., Esmaeili, M., Oghalaie, A., Abdirad, A., Mostafavi, E., Hosseini, M. A., and Mohammadi, M. (2013). Seroreactivity to Helicobacter pylori antigens as a risk indicator of gastric cancer. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, 14(3), 1813-1817.

Karim, S. (2014). Clinicopathological and p53 gene alteration comparison between young and older patients with gastric cancer. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, 15(3), 1375-1379.

Khan, A., Farooqui, A., Raza, Y., Rasheed, F., Manzoor, H., Akhtar, S. S., and Paglietti, B. (2013). Prevalence, diversity and disease association of Helicobacter pylori in dyspeptic patients from Pakistan. The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries, 7(03), 220-228.

Khoshbaten, M., Pishahang, P., Nouri, M., Lashkari, A., Alizadeh, M., and Rostami-Nejad, M. (2014). Diagnostic value of fecal calprotectin as a screening biomarker for gastrointestinal malignancies. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, 15(4), 1667-1670.

Lagergren, J., Bergström, R., Lindgren, A., and Nyrén, O. (2000). The role of tobacco, snuff and alcohol use in the aetiology of cancer of the oesophagus and gastric cardia. International Journal of Cancer, 85(3), 340-346.

Lu, Y. F., Liu, Z. C., Li, Z. H., Ma, W. H., Wang, F. R., Zhang, Y. B., and Lu, J. B. (2014). Esophageal/gastric cancer screening in high-risk populations in Henan Province, China. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, 15(3), 1419-1422.

Malakar, M., Devi, K. R., Phukan, R. K., Kaur, T., Deka, M., Puia, L., Sailo. L., Barua, D., Rajguru, S. K., Mahanta, J., and Narain, K. (2014). p53 codon 72 polymorphism interactions with dietary and tobacco related habits and risk of stomach cancer in Mizoram, India. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, 15(2), 717-723.

Marjani, A., Kabir, M. J., and Semnani, S. (2007). Stomach cancer incidence among males in Golestan province, Iran. Indian Journal of Gastroenterol, 26, 299.

Maxwell, D., Paola, P., and Ferlay, J. (1999). Estimates of the worldwide incidence of 25 major cancers in 1990. International Journal of Cancer, 80, 827-841.

Nagel, G., Linseisen, J., Boshuizen, H. C., Pera, G., Del Giudice, G., Westert, G. P., et al., and González, C. A. (2007). Socioeconomic position and the risk of gastric and oesophageal cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-EURGAST). International Journal of Epidemiology, 36(1), 66-76.

Stock, M., and Otto, F. (2005). Gene deregulation in gastric cancer. Gene, 360(1), 1-19.

Ullah, A., ud Din, Z., Saeedi, I., and Mehmood, K. (2003). Geographical distribution and histological presentation of gastric carcinoma in NWFP. Journal of Postgraduate Medical Institute (Peshawar-Pakistan), 17(1), 111-5.

Unal, D., Oguz, A., Acmaz, B., Goksu, S. S., Arslan, A., and Eroglu, C. (2014). Lack of any association between season of diagnosis and survival of gastric cancer cases in Kayseri, Turkey. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, 15(4), 1763-1766.

Yang, T. F., Guo, L., and Wang, Q. (2014). Meta-analysis of associations between four polymorphisms in the matrix metalloproteinases gene and gastric cancer risk. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, 15(3), 1263-1267.

Zeb, A., Rasool, A., and Nasreen, S. (2006). Occupation and cancer incidence in District Dir (NWFP), Pakistan, 2000-2004. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, 7(3), 483.

Zhong, C., Li, K. N., Bi, J. W., and Wang, B. C. (2012). Sodium intake, salt taste and gastric cancer risk according to Helicobacter pylori infection, smoking, histological type and tumor site in China. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, 13(6), 2481-2484.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

ASEAN Journal of Science and Engineering (AJSE) is published by UPI 

View My Stats