Analysis of Changes in Distribution of Urban Heat Island in Medan City and its Relationship with Land Change using Remote Sensing Data

Altha Nurzafira Melin Pisyam


Medan City is the third largest metropolitan city in Indonesia and is the capital of the province of North Sumatra. As one of the cities of the National Activity Center (PKN), the city of Medan has considerable consequences for the rapid development of the city. The rapid development of cities has implications for increasing residential areas, reducing green land cover, means of transportation, energy consumption and production resulting in surface temperature conditions. The surface temperature of Medan City resulting from an increase in built-up areas, reduced green land cover, means of transportation, energy consumption and production is higher than areas covered by vegetation. The difference in temperature between Medan, which is densely built and areas that are still covered with vegetation, is called the UHI phenomenon. The objectives of this study are: (1) To analyze the distribution of changes in the UHI phenomenon in Medan City in 2013 and 2022 (2) To analyze the relationship of land use change to UHI in Medan City. The research method is LST data analysis to obtain UHI, NDVI and NDBI values . NDVI and NDBI values are also extracted using remote sensing data. The data used are Landsat 8 imagery in 2013 and Landsat 9 imagery in 2022. Analysis of the determination of influence is carried out using simple regression. The results of this study show that the distribution of UHI in Medan City from 2013 and 2022 generally has a similar distribution of UHI affected areas, namely the northern side of Medan City dominates which is a non-UHI area while the east, west and central sides are UHI affected areas.


NDVI; NDBI; LST; Remote Sensing

Full Text:



Adams, M. P., & Smith, P. L. (2014). A Systematic Approach to Model The Influence of The Type and Density of Vegetation Cover on Urban Heat using Remote Sensing. Landscape and Urban Planning, 132, 47–54.

Aflaki, A., Mirnezhad, M., Ghaffarianhoseini, A., Ghaffarianhoseini, A., Omrany, H., Wang, Z. H., & Akbari, H. (2017). Urban Heat Island Mitigation Strategies: A state-of-the-art Review on Kuala Lumpur, Singapore and Hong Kong. Cities, 62, 131–145.

Aldiansyah, S., Mannesa, M. D. M., & Supriatna, S. (2021). Monitoring of vegetation cover changes with geomorphological forms using Google Earth engine in Kendari City. Jurnal Geografi Gea, 21(2), 159-170.

Aris, A., Syaf, H., Yusuf, D. N., & Nurgiantoro. (2019). Analysis of urban heat island intensity using multi temporal landsat data; Case study of Kendari City, Indonesia. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 389(1), 1–14.

Cai, Z., Han, G., & Chen, M. (2018). Do Water Bodies Play an Important Role in The Relationship Between Urban Form and Land Surface Temperature? Sustainable Cities and Society, 39, 487–498.

Chen, Z., Jiang, W. G., Tang, Z. H., & Jia, K. (2016). Spatial-Temporal Pattern of Vegetation Index Change and The Relationship to Land Surface Temperature In Zoige. International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences - ISPRS Archives, 41, 849–852.

Dini, A. Z., Nahampun, C. F., Prayoga, D. R., Lubis, D. P., Rahmadi, M. T., & Permana, S. (2023). Analysis of Spatial Patterns Based on Land Use in Stabat District, Langkat Regency, North Sumatra. Jurnal Geografi Gea, 23(1), 30-39. 1.51482.g22944

Gaol, A. L., Serhalawan, Y. R., & Kristianto, A. (2020). Contribution of Urban Heat Island on Landscape Composition and Its Impact to the Land Surface Temperature (Case Study on Palembang City Indonesia). Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1434(1), 1–12.

Husna, V. N., Fawzi, N. I., & Nur, I. A. (2018). Measuring and Mitigating Urban Heat Island in Yogyakarta City using Remote Sensing. International Journal of Scientific and Technology Research, 7(7), 57–60.

Karyati, N. E., Sholihah, R. I., Panuju, D. R., Trisasongko, B. H., Nadalia, D., & Iman, L. O. S. (2022). Application of Landsat-8 OLI/TIRS to assess the Urban Heat Island (UHI). IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 1109(1), 1–8.

Muzaky, H., & Jaelani, L. M. (2019). Analysis of the impact of land cover on Surface Temperature Distribution: Urban heat island studies Medan and Makassar. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 389(1), 1–8.

Nandi, N., & Dede, M. (2022). Urban Heat Island Assessment using Remote Sensing Data in West Java, Indonesia: From Literature Review to Experiments and Analyses. Indonesian Journal of Science and Technology, 7(1), 105–116.

Pohan, S. A., & Sulistiyono, N. (2023). Analysis of The Relationship between Urban Heat Island (UHI) Phenomenon and Land Cover Change in Medan City using Landsat Satellite Imagery. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 2421(1), 1–6.

Rajasekar, U., & Weng, Q. (2009). Urban Heat Island Monitoring and Analysis Using a non-Parametric Model: A case Study of Indianapolis. ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 64(1), 86–96.

Ramsay, E. E., Duffy, G. A., Burge, K., Taruc, R. R., Fleming, G. M., Faber, P. A., & Chown,

S. L. (2023). Spatio-temporal development of the urban heat island in a socioeconomically diverse tropical city. Environmental Pollution, 316, 1–12.

Rauf, S., Pasra, M. M., & Yuliani. (2020). Analysis of Correlation Between Urban Heat Islands (UHI) with Land-use Using Sentinel 2 Time Series Image in Makassar City. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 419(1), 1–8.

Ridwan, R., Rahman, B., Hariri, H., Sudjarwo, S., Herdian, H., Tusianah, R., Maydiantoro, A., Isnainy, U. C. A. S., Zainaro, M. A., Kesuma, T. A. R. P., & Zalmansyah, A. (2022). Education Management from Indonesia: The Political Influence of Regional Heads. WSEAS Transactions on Business and Economics, 19, 938–952.

Santamouris, M. (2015). Analyzing the Heat Island Magnitude and Characteristics in One Hundred Asian and Australian Cities and Regions. Science of the Total Environment, 512–513, 582–598.

Saringatin, S., Ramadan, G. F., Widiastuti, E. I., & Arjasakusuma, S. (2022). Analysis of Urban Comfort Level in Java Island Based on Air Temperature and Air Quality in 2015-2019. Jurnal Geografi Gea, 22(1), 77-86. .g18962

Schwarz, N., Lautenbach, S., & Seppelt, R. (2011). Exploring Indicators for Quantifying Surface Urban Heat Islands of European cities with MODIS Land Surface Temperatures. Remote Sensing of Environment, 115(12), 3175–3186.

Sejati, A. W., Buchori, I., & Rudiarto, I. (2019). The spatio-temporal trends of Urban Growth and Surface Urban Heat Islands over two Decades in the Semarang Metropolitan Region. Sustainable Cities and Society, 46, 1–14.

Stewart, I. D. (2011). A systematic Review and Scientific Critique of Methodology in Modern Urban Heat Island Literature. International Journal of Climatology, 31(2), 200–217.

Yang, L., Qian, F., Song, D. X., & Zheng, K. J. (2016). Research on Urban Heat-Island Effect. Procedia Engineering, 169, 11–18.




  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2024 Jurnal Geografi Gea

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.