Readiness of Public TVET for the Fourth Industrial Revolution: The Case of South Africa

Varaidzo Denhere, Tankiso Moloi


This study aimed at determining the readiness of South African Public Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) Colleges to operate in the 4IR. An assessment of the indicators deemed to prove readiness by the researchers of this study basing on literature was conducted through virtually interviewing public TVET College Principals, Deputy Principals Academic, Human Resources Managers and ICT Managers. A purposive sample of 26 from a population of 50 public TVET colleges proportionally representing the 9 provinces of South Africa was identified. The interviews were video recorded and later transcribed. From the findings it was concluded that most of the public TVETs realised the importance of readiness for 4IR as they got a push from Covid-19 and started or intensified preparing but were not completely ready due to lack of or inadequate teaching and learning technologies, training for teaching staff on the use of available technology; poor connectivity; lack of computing equipment; lack of ICT infrastructure; lack of ICT Strategies; and above all lack of policy directive. The findings could be used by the South African government to inform policy formulation and supporting higher education and training as a response to demands of 4IR to promote readiness by public TVETs to operate in the era characterised by intense technological changes.


Public TVET Colleges; technologies; teaching and learning; 4th industrial revolution; preparedness

Full Text:



Atkinson, J. (2002). Four Steps to Analyse Data from a Case Study Method. ACIS 2002 Proceedings, p. 38.

Crouch, M., and McKenzie, H. (2006). The Logic of Small Samples in Interview-Based Qualitative Research. Social Science Information, 45(18).

De Vos, A. S., Strydom, H., Fouché, C. B., and Delport, C. S. L. (2002). Research at grass roots for the social sciences and human service professions. (2nd Ed.). Pretoria: Van Schaik Publishers.

Heale, R., and Twycross, A. (2018). Research made simple. BMJ Journals, 21(1), 7-8.

Ishak, N. M., and Abu Bakar, A. Y. (2014). Developing Sampling Frame for Case Study: Challenges and Conditions. World Journal of Education, 4(3), 29-35.

Johal, W., Castellano, G., Tanaka, F., and Okita, S. (2018). Robots for learning. International Journal of Social Robotics, 10, 293–294.

Loynes, K. (2016). Clearing the Blockages that Stifle Development. Independent Thinking.

Makgato, M. (2019). Technical and Vocational Education and Training for sustainable skills for the Fourth Industrial Revolution: snapshot at some TVET colleges in South Africa. IntechOpen. [Online]. Retrieved from:

Minister of Higher Education and Training Budget Vote Speech, National Assembly. (2017, May 16). [Online]. Retrieved from:,%202017%20Version%20Final.pdf.

Moloi, T., and Marwala, T. (2020). Artificial Intelligence in Economics and Finance Theories. Netherlands: Springer.

Ndung’u, N. (2018). Next steps for the digital revolution in Africa: Inclusive growth and job creation lessons from Kenya. Working Paper 20. Brookings Institution.

Nundkumar, A., and Subban, M. (2018). Embracing the Fourth Industrial Revolution: Risk based Perspectives of the South African TVET College Sector. Journal of Contemporary Management, (15), 305-328.

Oke, A., and Fernandes, F. A. P. (2020). Innovations in Teaching and Learning: Exploring the Perceptions of the Education Sector on the 4th Industrial Revolution (4IR). Journal of Open Innovation: Technology, Market, and Complexity, 6(31).

Vermaak, M. (2020, March 3). Ready for the 4th Industrial Revolution. Global Africa Network. [Online]. Retrieved from:

World Economic Forum. (2018). The Future of Jobs Report. Geneva, Switzerland: Insight Report, World Economic Forum.

Xing, B. and Marwala, T. (2018, August 8). Implications of the Fourth Industrial Age for Higher Education. [Online]. Retrieved from: The_Thinker__Issue_73__Third_Quarter_2017.

Zainal, Z. (2007). Case Study as a Research Method. Journal Kemanusiaan, 9, 1-6.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 INVOTEC

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

This journal provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge.

Lisensi Creative Commons
This work is licensed under a Lisensi Creative Commons Atribusi-BerbagiSerupa 4.0 Internasional.

View My Stats