The Competitiveness of SMK and Diploma 3 Graduates of Hospitality at the Entry Level and Employability Skills in Developing Career Pathways

Femmy Indriany Dalimunthe, Eddy Sutadji, Rita Margaretha Setianingsih


Along with the development of the ASEAN Economic Community in 2015, Indonesia is required to generate professional human resources in order to compete with other countries, particularly subject to competition in the services sector. Hotel is a product in the hospitality industry that have an important role in the tourism business.Intense competition in the hospitality industry demand the hotels to provide the best service to the customers. Vocational education has a function to prepare a professional and competitive workforce in the industry. The hospitality graduates will be able to fill the existing organizational structure in accordance with the educational background. The Presidential Decree No.8, 2012, Article 5 states that equalizing learning outcomes generated through education with the level of qualification at KKNI. KKNI is intended as a description of outcomes that must be mastered by graduates of vocational education, higher education, vocational training institutions as well as independent study. Graduates of Vocational and D3 of hospitality began  their career in the hospitality industry by filling the positions in the organizational structure. In a few of star hotels in Medan, North Sumatra, hospitality graduates of vocational and D3 have competitive power in a very thin difference. Their entry level almost similar to the same position as well as employability skills and technical competence are almost equal that will provide a gap between the educational background of the career pathways that exist in the world of hospitality. It is very wise if there will be collaboration between the hotel industry, the educators, community leaders, and high-level policy makers in generating strategies to enhance the competitiveness of human resources professionals in the hospitality and placed in accordance with the level of education based KKNI.

Full Text:



Adhikary, P.K. 2005. Educational Reform For Linking Skills Development With Employment In Nepal. In M. SINGH (Eds.): Meeting Basic Learning Needs in the Informal Sector Integrating Education and Training for Decent Work, Empowerment and Citizenship. 215-228. Hamburg, Germany: UNESCO Institute for Education.

Audu, R.,Yusri, Sukri, M. 2013.Acquisition of Employability Skills in Technical Vocational Education: Necessity for the 21st Century Workforce.Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences. 7(6): 9-14.

Badan Pusat Statistik Indonesia. 2002. Kualifikasi Baku Jenis Pekerjaan Indonesia. Jakarta: BPS Indonesia.

Bennett, T.M., 2006. Defining the Importance of Employability Skills in Career/TechnicalEducation.

Billing, D. 2003. Generic Cognitive Abilities in Higher Education: An International Analysis of Skills Sought by Stakeholders. Compare. 33(3) : 335-350.

Burack, E., H., & Mathys, N., J. 1983. Introduction to Management; A Career Perspective. USA : John Wiley & Sons,Inc.

Burgaz, B.2008. Employability Competences of Vocational Secondary School Students.Eurasian Journal of Education Research. 31: 17-34.

Evers, F. T., Rush, J. C., & Berdrow, I. 1998. The Bases of Competence. Skills for Lifelong Learning and Employability. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.

Harper, S., Brown. C., & Irvine, W. 2005. Qualifications: a fast-track to hotel general managers?.International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management. 17: 51-64.

Hee, Jung. 2008. Career expectations and requirements of undergraduate hospitality students and the hospitality industry: An analysis of differences. Thesis. Auckland International Hospitality Management. AUT University.

Hinckley, R., & Hull, D. 2008. Adult Career Pathways: Providing a Second Chance in Public Education. Texas: CORD.

Kwok, M., 2004. Towards an Understanding of Employability Skills Development Among University Graduates for Workplace Entry. Manitoba: The University of Manitoba.

Munro, J.2007. Fostering Internationally Referenced Vocational Knowledge: A Challenge forInternational Curricula. Journal of Research in International Education: 6: 67-93.

Omar, M.K., A.R. Bakar & A. Mat Rashid. 2012. Employability Skill Acquisition Among Malaysian

Community College Students. Journal of Social Sciences, 8(3): 472-478.

Overtoom, C. 2000. Employability Skills: An Update. (Online), (, diakses 9 Januari 2014.

Pavlova M. 2009. The Vocationalization of Secondary Education: The Relationships between Vocational and Technology Education. In R. Maclean, D. Wilson, & C. Chinien (Eds.). International Handbook of Education for the Changing World of Work, Bridging Academic and Vocational Learning : 1805-1822. Germany: Springer.

Prosser, C., A.1950.Vocational education in a democracy. Chicago, IL: American Technical Society.

Ramlee, 2002. The Role of Vocational and Technical Education in the Industrialization of Malaysia asPerceived by Educators and Employers. DoctoralDissertation. Purdue University.

Richens and McClain.2000. Workplace Basic Skills for the New Millennium. Journal of Adult Education. 28(1) : 29-34

Robinson, J., P . 2000. What are employability skills. Alabama Cooperative Extension System. (Online). 1(3):1-3. ( 15 November 2013.

SCANS (The Secretary’s Commission on Achieving Necessary Skill). 1991. What Work Requires of Schoos: A SCANS Report for American 2000. US Department of Labour. (;) accessed July 2005)

Sailah,I. 2008. Pengembangan soft skill di perguruan tinggi. Bogor: Tim kerja pengembangan soft skill. (Online). ( 22 September 2013.

Schulz, B. 2008. The Importance of Soft Skills:Education Beyond Academic Knowledge. Journal of Language and Communication, (Online) : 145-154, (hhtp:// diakses 11 Desember 2014.

STEMNET (Science,Technology,Engineering and Mathematics Network).2010. Top 10 Employability Skills, (Online), (hhtp://, diakses 15 November 2013

Surono.2012. Skills for employability, (Online),(,diakses22 November 2013.

Undang-Undang Republik Indonesia Nomor 20 Tahun 2003 Tentang Sistem Pendidikan Nasional. Jakarta: Lembaran Negara RI.

Tsai,M.S, Jen, C. 2004. Bridging Hospitality Education and The Industry in Taiwan: Competency Assessment For Entry-Level Lodging Managerial Trainees. Disertation Unpublished. Hotel Administration Faculty of Texas Tech University.

Wilhelm, W. J., Logan, J., Smith, S.M., Szul, L.F.2002. Meeting the Demand: Teaching Soft Skills [Electronic Version], 43-57.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2016 The International Journal of Technical and Vocational Education

This journal provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge.

Lisensi Creative Commons
This work is licensed under a Lisensi Creative Commons Atribusi-BerbagiSerupa 4.0 Internasional.

View My Stats