The Influence of Outdoor Education and Gender on the Development of Social Values

Amung Ma'mun, Eka Nugraha, Adli Hakama, Jahidin J


This article reveals the differences in the development of social values through outdoor educational activities (OE) equipped with structured and unstructured games by looking at gender factors. OE activities were conducted in Parongpong and Gunung Artapela, West Bandung West Java Indonesia, followed by 32 students divided into two groups. With a simple 2 x 2 factorial design, the first group was given an OE activity equipped with a structured game and a second group of unstructured games, amounting to 16 people per group. Before and after following OE each sample filled out a questionnaire about the development of social values (environmental care, self-control, communication, and cohesiveness). Gain scores are used to test the hypotheses of the questionnaire after and before following the OE through ANOVA and Tukey. The results are: firstly, there is no overall difference in the effect of OE equipped with structured games with unstructured development of social values; Secondly, there is an interplay between the game model in OE with gender so as to give different effects on the development of social values; Thirdly, there is a difference of influence between OE and structured game with unstructured development of social values in the male gender group, OE equipped with better structured game than unstructured game; Fourth, there is a difference in the effect of OE with unstructured game structured to the development of social values in women's gender groups, OE activities with unstructured games better than structured. OE activities require the right type of game according to their gender. Equips OE with structured games suitable for men and unstructured for women.


Artikel ini mengungkapkan perbedaan perkembangan nilai-nilai sosial melalui kegiatan outdoor education (OE) yang dilengkapi dengan permainan yang terstruktur dan tidak terstruktur dengan melihat faktor jenis kelamin. Aktivitas OE dilakukan di Parongpong dan Gunung Artapela, Bandung Barat, Jawa Barat Indonesia, diikuti oleh 32 siswa dibagi menjadi dua kelompok. Dengan desain faktorial 2 x 2, kelompok pertama diberi kegiatan OE yang dilengkapi dengan permainan terstruktur dan kelompok kedua dari permainan yang tidak terstruktur, yang berjumlah 16 orang per kelompok. Sebelum dan sesudah mengikuti OE setiap sampel mengisi kuesioner tentang pengembangan nilai sosial (perawatan lingkungan, pengendalian diri, komunikasi, dan integitas). Skor gain digunakan untuk menguji hipotesis kuesioner setelah dan sebelum mengikuti OE menggunakan ANOVA dan Tukey. Hasilnya adalah: pertama, tidak ada perbedaan menyeluruh  pengaruh OE yang dilengkapi dengan permainan terstruktur dengan pengembangan nilai-nilai sosial yang tidak terstruktur; Kedua, ada interaksi antara model permainan di OE dengan gender sehingga memberikan efek yang berbeda pada pengembangan nilai-nilai sosial; Ketiga, ada perbedaan pengaruh antara OE dan permainan terstruktur dengan pengembangan nilai-nilai sosial yang tidak terstruktur dalam kelompok gender laki-laki, OE dengan permainan terstruktur  lebih baik daripada permainan yang tidak terstruktur; Keempat, ada perbedaan dalam efek OE dengan permainan terstruktur tidak terstruktur untuk pengembangan nilai-nilai sosial dalam kelompok-kelompok gender perempuan, kegiatan OE dengan permainan yang tidak terstruktur lebih baik daripada yang terstruktur. Kegiatan OE membutuhkan jenis permainan yang tepat sesuai dengan gender mereka. OE dengan permainan terstruktur lebih cocok untuk pria dan tidak terstruktur untuk wanita.


Outdoor education, gender, and development of social values

Full Text:



Acar, H. (2014). Learning Environments for Children in Outdoor Spaces. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 141, 846–853.

Ampuero, D., Miranda, C. E., Delgado, L. E., Goyen, S., & Weaver, S. (2015). Empathy and critical thinking: primary students solving local environmental problems through outdoor learning. Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor Learning, 15(1), 64–78.

Atencio, M., Tan, Y. S. M., Ho, S., & Ching, C. T. (2014). The place and approach of outdoor learning within a holistic curricular agenda: development of Singaporean outdoor education practice. Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor Learning, 9679(October), 1–12.

Beames, S., & Atencio, M. (2008). Building social capital through outdoor education. Journal of Adventure Education & Outdoor Learning, 8(2), 99–112.

Bento, G., & Dias, G. (2017). The importance of outdoor play for young children’s healthy development. Porto Biomedical Journal, (xx).

Bergman, B. G. (2015). Assessing impacts of locally designed environmental education projects on students’ environmental attitudes, awareness, and intention to act. Environmental Education Research, 4622(March), 1–24.

Bowen, D. J., & Neill, J. T. (2015). Effects of the PCYC Catalyst outdoor adventure intervention program on youths’ life skills, mental health, and delinquent behaviour. International Journal of Adolescence and Youth, 3843(March), 1–22.

Bravell, M. E., Finkel, D., Dahl Aslan, A., Reynolds, C. A., Hallgren, J., & Pedersen, N. L. (2017). Motor functioning differentially predicts mortality in men and women. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 72(May), 6–11.

Bunting, C. J. (1989). The Compatibility of Physical Education and Outdoor Education. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 60(2), 35–39.

Cherif, A. H. (1992). Barriers to Ecology Education in North American High Schools Another Alternative Perspective. The Journal of Environmental Education, 23(3), 36–46.

d’Angelo, M. J., & Brunstein, J. (2014). Social learning for sustainability: supporting sustainable business in Brazil regarding multiple social actors, relationships and interests. International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Ecology, 21(3), 273–289.

Davidson, L. (2001). Qualitative research and making meaning from adventure: A case study of boys’ experiences of outdoor education at school. Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor Learning, 1(2), 11–20.

Dettmer, P. (2005). New blooms in established fields: Four domains of learning and doing. Roeper Review, 28(2), 70–78.

Donelson, R. Forsyth (2010). Group Dynamics, Fifth Edition. Belmont, USA: Pre-Press PMG

Dyment, J. E., & Potter, T. G. (2015). Is outdoor education a discipline? Provocations and possibilities. Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor Learning, 15(3), 193–208.

Dyment, J., Morse, M., Shaw, S., & Smith, H. (2014). Curriculum Development in Outdoor Education: Tasmanian Teachers’ Perspectives on the New Pre-Tertiary Outdoor Leadership Course. Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor Learning, 14(1), 82–99.

Fenton, L., White, C., Gallant, K. A., Gilbert, R., Hutchinson, S., Hamilton-Hinch, B., & Lauckner, H. (2016). The Benefits of Recreation for the Recovery and Social Inclusion of Individuals with Mental Illness: An Integrative Review. Leisure Sciences, 39(1), 1–19.

Garst, B. a., Williams, D. R., & Roggenbuck, J. W. (2009). Exploring Early Twenty-First Century Developed Forest Camping Experiences and Meanings. Leisure Sciences, 32(November 2014), 90–107.

Gröpel, P., Wegner, M., & Schüler, J. (2016). Achievement motive and sport participation. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 27, 93–100.

Hagger, M. S., & Stevenson, A. (2010). Social physique anxiety and physical self-esteem: Gender and age effects. Psychology & Health, 25(1), 89–110.

Harthley, P. (1999). Interpersonal Communication, Second Edition. New York: Rouletdge.

Harun, M. T., & Salamuddin, N. (2010). Cultivating personality development through outdoor education programme: The Malaysia Experience. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 9, 228–234.

Hubball, H., & West, D. (2009). Learning-centered Planning Strategies in Outdoor Education Programs : Enhancing Participation and Self-Directed Learning. Strategies, 23(January 2015), 25–27.

Humberstone, B., & Stan, I. (2012). Nature and well-being in outdoor learning: authenticity or performativity. Journal of Adventure Education & Outdoor Learning, 12(3), 183–197.

Iozzi, L. A. (1989). What research says to the educator. Part one: environmental education and the affective domain. Journal of Environmental Education, 20(3), 3–9.

Ismail Abdul Fatai O., Asrul Faqih, & Wafa K. Bustan. (2014). Children’s Active Learning Through Unstructured Play in Malaysia. Childhood Education, 90(4), 259–264.

johnson, jay, & Chin, J. W. (2015). Hazing rites/rights: using outdoor- and adventure education-based orientation to effect positive change for first-year athletes. Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor Learning, 9679(March), 1–15.

Kangas, M. (2010). Creative and playful learning: Learning through game co-creation and games in a playful learning environment. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 5(1), 1–15.

Kastenholz, E., & Rodrigues, Á. (2007). Discussing the Potential Benefits of Hiking Tourism in Portugal. Anatolia, 18(1), 5–21.

Knapp, C. E. (1989). Humanizing Outdoor Education—Exploring the Affective Domain. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 60(2), 40–43.

Lortie, J., Castrogiovanni, G. J., & Cox, K. C. (2017). Gender, social salience, and social performance: how women pursue and perform in social ventures. Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, 29(1–2), 155–173.

Luckner, J. (1994). Effective Skills Instruction in Outdoor Adventure Education. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 65(1), 57–61.

Lugg, A. (2007). Developing sustainability-literate citizens through outdoor learning: possibilities for outdoor education in Higher Education. Journal of Adventure Education & Outdoor Learning, 7(2), 97–112.

Manni, A., Ottander, C., & Sporre, K. (2016). Young students’ aesthetic experiences and meaning-making processes in an outdoor environmental school practice. Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor Learning, 9679(September), 1–14.

McNamara, K. E., & Prideaux, B. (2011). Planning nature-based hiking trails in a tropical rainforest setting. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 16(3), 289–305.

Mirrahmi, S. Z., Tawil, N. M., Abdullah, N. A. G., Surat, M., & Usman, I. M. S. (2011). Developing conducive sustainable outdoor learning: The impact of natural environment on learning, social and emotional intelligence. Procedia Engineering, 20, 389–396.

Morissette, J. (2014). The theatricality of sport and the issue of ideology - 00948705.2013.858636, (December), 37–41.

Moser, T., & Martinsen, M. T. (2010). The Outdoor Environment in Norwegian Kindergartens as Pedagogical Space for Toddlers’ Play, Learning and Development. European Early Childhood Education Research Journal, 18(4), 457–471.

Mutz, M., & M??ller, J. (2016). Mental health benefits of outdoor adventures: Results from two pilot studies. Journal of Adolescence, 49, 105–114.

Nazir, J., & Pedretti, E. (2015). Educators’ perceptions of bringing students to environmental consciousness through engaging outdoor experiences. Environmental Education Research, 22(2), 288–304.

Pavlova, M. (2012). Towards using transformative education as a benchmark for clarifying differences and similarities between Environmental Education and Education for Sustainable Development. Environmental Education Research, 19(5), 656–672.

Place, G. S. (2016). Yesterday ’ s conservationists : how were they educated about the outdoors and the environment ? outdoors and the environment ?, 9679(May).

Quay, J., Kokkonen, J., & Kokkonen, M. (2016). Finnish interpretations of Creative Physical Education. Asia-Pacific Journal of HealthOnline) Journal Asia-Pacific Journal of Health, 7(2), 1837–7130.

Quinn, B., & Stacey, J. (2010). The benefits of holidaying for children experiencing social exclusion: recent Irish evidence. Leisure Studies, 29(1), 29–52.

Rodrigues, C., & Payne, P. G. (2015). Environmentalization of the physical education curriculum in Brazilian universities: culturally comparative lessons from critical outdoor education in Australia. Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor Learning, (August), 1–20.

Sandell, K., & Öhman, J. (2013). An educational tool for outdoor education and environmental concern. Journal of Adventure Education & Outdoor Learning, 13(1), 36–55.

Schwab, K., & Dustin, D. (2014). Engaging Youth in Lifelong Outdoor Adventure Activities through a Nontraditional Public School Physical Education Program. JOPERD: The Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 85(8), 27–31.

Scrutton, R. a. (2014). Outdoor adventure education for children in Scotland: quantifying the benefits. Journal of Adventure Education & Outdoor Learning, 9679(April), 1–15.

Tangney, J.P., Baumeister, R.F., Boone, A.L. (2004). 10-Item self-scoring self-control scale.

Journal of Personality, 5, 271-324.

Thomas, G. (2015). Signature pedagogies in outdoor education. Asia-Pacific Journal of Health, Sport and Physical Education, 6(2), 113–126.

Wang, C. K. J., Ang, R. P., Teo-Koh, S. M., & Kahlid, A. (2004). Motivational predictors of young adolescents’ participation in an outdoor adventure course: A self-determination theory approach. Journal of Adventure Education & Outdoor Learning, 4(1), 57–65.

Ward, G., & Griggs, G. (2011). Principles of Play: a proposed framework towards a holistic overview of games in primary physical education. Education 3-13, 39(5), 499–516.

Warren, K. (2005). A path worth taking: The development of social justice in outdoor experiential education. Equity and Excellence in Education, 38(October 2014), 89–99.

Williams, A., & Wainwright, N. (2016). A new pedagogical model for adventure in the curriculum: part two – outlining the model. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 21(6), 589–602.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 Amung Ma'mun, Eka Nugraha, Adli Hakama, Jahidin

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.


View My Stats