Effects of Progressive Muscle Relaxation on Concentration and Performance Scores of 10m Shooters

Novrizal Achmad Novan, Nandya Indriana Adha Irianto, Komarudin Komarudin, Patriana Nurmansyah Awwaludin


Shooting skills are very complex, and often athletes have to be faced with situations that require one shot to get a perfect score and need to maintain concentration and the pull of the trigger. This study aimed to analyze the difference in progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) exercise on increasing concentration and performance scores of 10-meter shooting. A total of 12 athletes (seven female dan five males) in Purwakarta were recruited for this study. They were randomly assigned to the two groups, the PMR group (n = 6) and the control (n = 6). The instruments used were the Concentration Grid Test to measure concentration while the 60 shots of both men and women of 10-meter shooting scores for a performance test. Data analysis using MANCOVA was performed using shooting scores and concentration as the dependent variable and covariates to determine their performance. They can be differentiated based on conventional training methods, progressive muscle relaxation, and the interaction of these factors. The results of the MANCOVA indicated a significant main effect for exercise methods, and it was revealed that differences in exercise methods had a significant effect on concentration and shooting scores. When athletes are faced with the demands of top performance, PMR training is a very economical but efficient and effective strategy for dealing with several problems. This helps athletes self-control and focus their attention during stressful situations and can be used to maintain physical, technical, and mental balance.



Air Pistol, Air Rifle, Concentration, Progressive Muscle Relaxation, 10m shooting

Full Text:



Behan, M., & Wilson, M. (2008). State anxiety and visual attention: The role of the quiet eye period in aiming to a far target. Journal of Sports Sciences, 26(2), 207–215. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640410701446919

Charalambous, A., Giannakopoulou, M., Bozas, E., Marcou, Y., Kitsios, P., & Paikousis, L. (2016). Guided imagery and progressive muscle relaxation as a cluster of symptoms management intervention in patients receiving chemotherapy: A randomized control trial. PLoS ONE, 11(6). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0156911


Crust, L., & Clough, P. J. (2011). Developing mental toughness: From research to practice. Journal of Sport Psychology in Action, 2(1), 21–32. https://doi.org/10.1080/21520704.2011.563436

Dereceli, Ç. (2018). An Examination of Concentration and Mental Toughness in Professional Basketball Players. Journal of Education and Training Studies, 7(1), 17. https://doi.org/10.11114/jets.v7i1.3841

Fateme, B., Fatemeh, M. K., Vahid, M., Arezou, N. N. J., Manizhe, N., & Zahra, M. (2019). The effect of benson’s muscle relaxation technique on severity of pregnancy nausea. Electronic Journal of General Medicine, 16(2), 2–7. https://doi.org/10.29333/ejgm/93480

Gillet, N., Vallerand, R. J., Amoura, S., & Baldes, B. (2010). Influence of coaches’ autonomy support on athletes’ motivation and sport performance: A test of the hierarchical model of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 11(2), 155–161. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2009.10.004

Gould, D., Guinan, D., Greenleaf, C., Medbery, R., & Peterson, K. (1999). Factors affecting olympic performance: Perceptions of athletes and coaches from more and less successful teams. Sport Psychologist, 13(4), 371–394. https://doi.org/10.1123/tsp.13.4.371

Hanton, S., Sciences, S. M.-… S., & 2002, undefined. (2002). A qualitative investigation of the temporal patterning of the precompetitive anxiety response. Shapeamerica.Tandfonline.Com, 20(11), 911–928. https://doi.org/10.1080/026404102320761804

Hazliza, R., Rohayah, H., Rahim, M., Nor Najibah, E., Khairi, C. M., Nordin, S., & Ahmad Zubaidi, A. L. (2017). Impacts of Three Different Relaxation Techniques on Mood States Among Athletes. Malaysian Journal of Public Health Medicine, 0(2), 49–58.

Jackson, S. A., Thomas, P. R., Marsh, H. W., & Smethurst, C. J. (2001). Relationships between Flow, Self-Concept, Psychological Skills, and Performance. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 13(2), 129–153. https://doi.org/10.1080/104132001753149865

Karlsson, J. (2017). Identifying patterns in physi-ological parameters of expert and novice marksmen in sim-ulation environment related to performance outcomes. Retrieved from www.liu.se

Koch, C., & Tsuchiya, N. (2007). Attention and consciousness: two distinct brain processes. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 11(1), 16–22. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2006.10.012

Komarudin. (2017). Psikologi Olahraga. Bandung: PT. Remaja Rosdakarya.

Kuan, G., Morris, T., Kueh, Y. C., & Terry, P. C. (2018). Effects of Relaxing and Arousing Music during Imagery Training on Dart-Throwing Performance, Physiological Arousal Indices, and Competitive State Anxiety. Frontiers in Psychology, 9(FEB), 14. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00014

Lakie, M. (2010). The influence of muscle tremor on shooting performance. Experimental Physiology, 95(3), 441–450. https://doi.org/10.1113/expphysiol.2009.047555

Magyar, T. M., & Feltz, D. (2003). The Relationship between the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 and Sport Performance: A Meta-Analysis K-12 Education Resource Development View project. Journals.Humankinetics.Com. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsep.25.1.44

Mon‐López, D., & Tejero‐González, C. M. (2019). Validity and reliability of the TargetScan ISSF Pistol & Rifle application for measuring shooting performance. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 29(11), 1707–1712. https://doi.org/10.1111/sms.13515

Nichols, M. B. (2017). Effects of a Single Diaphragmatic Breath on Anxiety, Gaze, and Effects of a Single Diaphragmatic Breath on Anxiety, Gaze, and Performance Performance. In WWU Graduate School Collection. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.25710/m092-2b58

Pierpaolo, L., & Antonia, T. G. (2018). The psychological constructs and dimensions applied to sports performance: A change of theoretical paradigms. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 18(5), 2034–2038. https://doi.org/10.7752/jpes.2018.s5302

Robazza, C., Ruiz, M. C., Robazza, C., & Ruiz, M. C. (2018). Emotional Self-Regulation in Sport and Performance. In Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1093/acrefore/9780190236557.013.154

Sakhare, N., Sharma, K., & Syal, A. (2018). Effect of progressive muscular relaxation technique and autogenic relaxation technique on pre competitive state anxiety and self-confidence in athletes.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.17509/jpjo.v6i2.31630


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 Novrizal Achmad Novan, Nandya Indriana Adha Irianto, Komarudin Komarudin, Patriana Nurmansyah Awwaludin

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.


View My Stats