The Effect of Performing Exercise in Air Polluted Environments on Blood Pressure Response

Samsul Bahri, Yudhi Teguh Pambudi, Imam Safei, Dadan Resmana, Ilham Hindawan

Abstract


Exercise has a positive impact on a person's health and fitness level. However, the benefits could be obtained if the exercise is conducted properly by avoiding the risk involved. One of the risks during exercise, especially for those in urban communities, is the difficulty in avoiding air pollution. Air pollution, especially particles with a size less than 2.5 microns (PM2.5), can be inhaled into the lungs and enter the bloodstream. The amount of air pollution inhaled will increase in the people doing exercise because the rate of breathing increases along with the increasing intensity and duration of the exercise. This may impact the blood pressure response due to the presence of foreign particles in the bloodstream. This study used a quasi-experimental method with a post-test-only comparison group approach. The research was conducted in Karawang Regency, West Java, Indonesia, and included two sites, a higher PM2.5 Concentration site, and a lower PM2.5 Concentration site. The research subjects included 22 undergraduate students with a healthy status divided into two research groups. Each group performed exercise, including 5 minutes of warm-up and 15 minutes of running at submaximal intensity (80–85% of HR Max) at 07.00 for five days consecutively. Blood pressure response measurements were taken immediately after exercise. This study aimed to determine the effect of regular exercise in high and low air pollution conditions (PM2.5) on the blood pressure response. The study found that regular exercise for five days in an environment with high air pollution resulted in higher systolic and diastolic arterial pressures than a regular exercise in low air pollution conditions. Thus, performing exercise in high PM2.5 air pollution conditions affects the blood pressure response. For this reason, vulnerable groups should pay attention to air pollution levels when doing exercise.


Keywords


Air Pollution, Blood Pressure, Exercise, PM2.5

Full Text:

PDF

References


Bahri, S., Safei, I., & Satriyo Tomo, H. (2020). Dampak berolahraga di area yang terpapar oleh polusi udara The Effect of Exercising in an Area Exposed to Air Pollution. Jurnal Penelitian Pembelajaran, 6(3), 588–598. https://doi.org/10.29407/js_unpgri.v6i3.14708

Brusseau, T. A., Hannon, J., & Burns, R. (2016). The effect of a comprehensive school physical activity program on physical activity and health-related fitness in children from low-income families. Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 13(8), 888–894. https://doi.org/10.1123/jpah.2016-0028

Calderón-Garcidueñas, L., & Villarreal-Ríos, R. (2017). Living close to heavy traffic roads, air pollution, and dementia. The Lancet, 389(10070), 675–677. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(16)32596-X

Dong, G. H., Qian, Z. M., Xaverius, P. K., Trevathan, E., Maalouf, S., Parker, J., Yang, L., Liu, M. M., Wang, D., Ren, W. H., Ma, W., Wang, J., Zelicoff, A., Fu, Q., & Simckes, M. (2013). Association between long-term air pollution and increased blood pressure and hypertension in China. Hypertension, 61(3), 578–584. https://doi.org/10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.111.00003

Filomena Mazzeo, & Alessandro Liccardo. (2019). RESPIRATORY RESPONSES TO EXERCISE IN SPORT. Sport Science, 12(1), 49–52.

Galleguillos, M. F., Céspedes, C., & Saa, D. (2014). Hypertension and chronic kidney disease. Advances in Hypertension Research, 185–225.

Giles, L. V., & Koehle, M. S. (2014). The health effects of exercising in air pollution. In Sports Medicine (Vol. 44, Issue 2, pp. 223–249). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-013-0108-z

Giorgini, P., Di Giosia, P., Grassi, D., Rubenfire, M., D. Brook, R., & Ferri, C. (2016). Air Pollution Exposure and Blood Pressure: An Updated Review of the Literature. Current Pharmaceutical Design, 22(1), 28–51. https://doi.org/10.2174/1381612822666151109111712

Haryanto, B. (2018). Climate Change and Urban Air Pollution Health Impacts in Indonesia. Springer Climate, 215–239. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-61346-8_14

Ji, X., Yao, Y., & Long, X. (2018). What causes PM2.5 pollution? Cross-economy empirical analysis from socioeconomic perspective. Energy Policy, 119, 458–472. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2018.04.040

Marmett, B., Carvalho, R. B., Dorneles, G. P., Nunes, R. B., & Rhoden, C. R. (2020). Should I stay or should I go: Can air pollution reduce the health benefits of physical exercise? Medical Hypotheses, 144(June), 109993. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mehy.2020.109993

Miao, Z., Baležentis, T., Shao, S., & Chang, D. (2019). Energy use, industrial soot and vehicle exhaust pollution—China’s regional air pollution recognition, performance decomposition and governance. Energy Economics, 83, 501–514. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eneco.2019.07.002

Pasqua, Leonardo A., Damasceno, M. V., Cruz, R., Matsuda, M., Martins, M. A. G., Marquezini, M. V., Lima-Silva, A. E., Saldiva, P. H. N., & Bertuzzi, R. (2020). Exercising in the urban center: Inflammatory and cardiovascular effects of prolonged exercise under air pollution. Chemosphere, 254. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.126817

Pasqua, Leonardo Alves, Damasceno, M. V., Cruz, R., Matsuda, M., Martins, M. G., Lima-Silva, A. E., Marquezini, M., Saldiva, P. H. N., & Bertuzzi, R. (2018). Exercising in air pollution: The cleanest versus dirtiest cities challenge. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 15(7). https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15071502

Racinais, S., Cocking, S., & Périard, J. D. (2017). Sports and environmental temperature: From warming-up to heating-up. In Temperature (Vol. 4, Issue 3, pp. 227–257). Routledge. https://doi.org/10.1080/23328940.2017.1356427

Riebe, D., Franklin, B. A., Thompson, P. D., Garber, C. E., Whitfield, G. P., Magal, M., & Pescatello, L. S. (2015). Updating ACSM’s recommendations for exercise preparticipation health screening. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 47(11), 2473–2479. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000000664

Suharyati, Pambudi, S. H., Wibowo, J. L., & Pratiwi, N. I. (2019). Indonesia Energy Outlook 2019.

Vancini, R. L., Nikolaidis, P. T., de Lira, C. A. B., Vancini-Campanharo, C. R., Viana, R. B., Andrade, M. D. S., Rosemann, T., & Knechtle, B. (2019). Prevention of sudden death related to sport: The science of basic life support—from theory to practice. In Journal of Clinical Medicine (Vol. 8, Issue 4). MDPI. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8040556

Ward, J. K., Hastie, P. A., Wadsworth, D. D., Foote, S., Brock, S. J., & Hollett, N. (2017). A Sport Education Fitness Season’s Impact on Students’ Fitness Levels, Knowledge, and In-Class Physical Activity. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 88(3), 346–351. https://doi.org/10.1080/02701367.2017.1321100

Watanabe, N. M., Yan, G., Soebbing, B. P., & Fu, W. (2019). Air pollution and attendance in the Chinese super league: Environmental economics and the demand for sport. Journal of Sport Management, 33(4), 289–302. https://doi.org/10.1123/JSM.2018-0214

Xie, W., You, J., Zhi, C., & Li, L. (2021). The toxicity of ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) to vascular endothelial cells. In Journal of Applied Toxicology (Vol. 41, Issue 5, pp. 713–723). John Wiley and Sons Ltd. https://doi.org/10.1002/jat.4138

Zeng, X. W., Qian, Z. (Min), Vaughn, M. G., Nelson, E. J., Dharmage, S. C., Bowatte, G., Perret, J., Chen, D. H., Ma, H., Lin, S., de Foy, B., Hu, L. W., Yang, B. Y., Xu, S. L., Zhang, C., Tian, Y. P., Nian, M., Wang, J., Xiao, X., … Dong, G. H. (2017). Positive association between short-term ambient air pollution exposure and children blood pressure in China–Result from the Seven Northeast Cities (SNEC) study. Environmental Pollution, 224, 698–705. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2017.02.054




DOI: https://doi.org/10.17509/jpjo.v7i1.45037

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2022 Samsul Bahri, Yudhi Teguh Pambudi, Imam Safei, Dadan Resmana, Ilham Hindawan

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

web
statistics

View My Stats