Aerobic Capacity Response and Hematological Profile during Performing Physical Activity at Two Public Sport Venues with Different Air Pollution Concentrations

Samsul Bahri, Dadan Resmana, Haryo Satriyo Tomo, Imam Safei, Muhamad Fahmi Hasan


The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of exercise on aerobic capacity and hematological profile of amateur futsal athletes at two public sport venues having the same climatic characteristics with different air pollution concentrations. The method used in this study was a quasi experimental method with a post-test only crossover design approach. Subjects of the study were 15 futsal athletes from futsal clubs in Bandung city. The mean (SD) of age, weight, height, and BMI of the participants were 18.73 ± 1.7 years, 55.29 ± 3.0 Kg, 165.90 ± 2.6 cm, and 19.90 ± 0.8 Kg / m2. The results of this study indicated that a high amount of air pollution could significantly inhibit the increase of VO2max (p = 0.043) and hemoglobin (p = 0.023) and could significantly increase white blood cells (p = 0.042 leukocytes). The findings of this study provide evidence that air pollution can have a negative effect on the hematological profile of futsal athletes. Thus, the athlete and coach should consider the level of air pollution around the venue before doing exercise. It should be anticipated because, basically, exercising can increase the rate of air ventilation in the respiratory system so that it can cause air pollution, such as PM2.5 and PM10, entering the lungs and even the alveoli.


aerobic capacity, air pollution, hematology.

Full Text:



An, R., & Yu, H. (2018). Impact of ambient fine particulate matter air pollution on health behaviors : a longitudinal study of university students in Beijing , China. 9.

Bahri, S., Resmana, D., Tomo, H. S., & Karim1, D. A. (2017). TERHADAP NILAI VO2MAX Program Studi Sains Keolahragaan Sekolah Farmasi Insititut Teknologi Bandung1 , Fakultas Metode Penelitian Hasil dan Pembahasan. 27–30.

Brook, R. D., Rajagopalan, S., Iii, C. A. P., Brook, J. R., Bhatnagar, A., Diez-roux, A. V, … Kaufman, J. D. (2015). Particulate Matter Air Pollution and Cardiovascular Disease An Update to the Scientific Statement From the American.

Buka, I., Koranteng, S., & Osornio-Vargas, A. R. (2006). The effects of air pollution on the health of children. Paediatrics and Child Health, 11(8), 513–516.

Das, P., & Chatterjee, P. (2015). Aerobic capacity and hematological response to exercise: A study on school-going regularly exercising boys in two different air pollution zones. Journal of Exercise Science and Fitness, 13(2), 99–103.

Davidson, S. B., & Penney, D. G. (1988). Toxicology 9. c, 306–313.

Deshpande, S. P., & Deshpande, S. S. (2014). Factors influencing consumer satisfaction with health care. Health Care Manager, 33(3), 261–266.

Giles, L. V., & Koehle, M. S. (2014). The health effects of exercising in air pollution. Sports Medicine, 44(2), 223–249.

Gomeñuka, N. A., Oliveira, H. B., da Silva, E. S., Passos-Monteiro, E., da Rosa, R. G., Carvalho, A. R., … Peyré-Tartaruga, L. A. (2020). Nordic walking training in elderly, a randomized clinical trial. Part II: Biomechanical and metabolic adaptations. Sports Medicine - Open, 6(1), 1–19.

Jacobs, L., Nawrot, T. S., De Geus, B., Meeusen, R., Degraeuwe, B., Bernard, A., … Panis, L. I. (2010). Subclinical responses in healthy cyclists briefly exposed to traffic-related air pollution: An intervention study. Environmental Health: A Global Access Science Source, 9(1), 64.

Kargarfard, M., Poursafa, P., Rezanejad, S., & Mousavinasab, F. (2011). Effects of exercise in polluted air on the aerobic power, serum lactate level and cell blood count of active individuals. International Journal of Preventive Medicine, 2(3), 145–150.

Lee, I.-M., Shiroma, E. J., Lobelo, F., Puska, P., Blair, S. N., & Katzmarzyk, P. T. (2012). Impact of Physical Inactivity on the World’s Major Non-Communicable Diseases. The Lancet, 380(9838), 219–229.

Lestari, P. (2003). in an Urban Area Bandung. 160(10), 107–108.

Margolis, K. L., Manson, J. E., & Greenland, P. (2005). Leukocyte Count as a Predictor of Cardiovascular Events and Mortality in Postmenopausal Women. ACC Current Journal Review, 14(6), 12–13.

Masih, J., Dyavarchetty, S., Nair, A., Taneja, A., Singhvi, R., & Team, R. (2020). EPA Public Access.

Oliveira, R. S., Barros Neto, T. L., Braga, A. L. F., Raso, V., Pereira, L. A. A., Morette, S. R., & Carneiro, R. C. (2006). Impact of acute exposure to air pollution on the cardiorespiratory performance of military firemen. Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, 39(12), 1643–1649.

Pope, C. A., Burnett, R. T., Thurston, G. D., Thun, M. J., Calle, E. E., Krewski, D., & Godleski, J. J. (2004). Cardiovascular Mortality and Long-Term Exposure to Particulate Air Pollution: Epidemiological Evidence of General Pathophysiological Pathways of Disease. Circulation, 109(1), 71–77.

Saunders, K. H., Shukla, A. P., Uk, M., & Igel, L. I. (2016). Pharmacotherapy for Obesity. Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of NA, 45(3), 521–538.

Thompson Coon, J., Boddy, K., Stein, K., Whear, R., Barton, J., & Depledge, M. H. (2011). Does participating in physical activity in outdoor natural environments have a greater effect on physical and mental wellbeing than physical activity indoors? A systematic review. Environmental Science and Technology, 45(5), 1761–1772.

Vecchi, R., Marcazzan, G., & Valli, G. (2007). A study on nighttime-daytime PM10 concentration and elemental composition in relation to atmospheric dispersion in the urban area of Milan (Italy). Atmospheric Environment, 41(10), 2136–2144.

Volianitis, S., & Secher, N. H. (2016). Cardiovascular control during whole body exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology, 121(2), 376–390.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 Haryo Satriyo Tomo, Muhamad Fahmi Hasan, Samsul Bahri, Dadan Resmana

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.


View My Stats