A NOVEL OF BIOMEDICAL APPROACH FOR HIV PREVENTION: AN INTEGRATED LITERATURE REVIEW

Linlin Lindayani

Abstract


ABSTRAK

Secara global, jumlah kasus baru terinfeksi Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) sudah mengalami penurunan yang signifikan. Akan tetapi dibeberapa wilayah negara seperti Afrika dan Asia Tenggara, jumlah kasus baru terinfeksi HIV masil mengalami peningkatan. Upaya pencegahan seperti promosi penggunaan kondom, sunat bagi laki-laki, dan skrining HIV sudah diimpementasikan dengan baik. Tetapi, pendekatan tersebut tetap saja tidak menghilangkan seseorang terkena resiko HIV bahkan mungkin untuk pasangan yang hidup dengan penderita HIV malah meningkatan resiko mereka tertular HIV. Sehingga dibutuhkan suatu pendekatan lain yang efekti dan mampu meminimalkan sekecil-kecilnya resiko seseorang tertular HIV. Tujuan dari review ini adalah untuk mengkaji efektifitas pendekatan baru yang dikenal dengan pendekatan biomedik terhadap penurunan resiko tertular HIV. Melalui pencarian secara komprehensif di beberap sumber data seperti PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, clinicaltrials.gov, htpn.org, and meta-register dilakukan terutama berfokus pada studi yang diterbitkan dalam Bahasa Inggris pada tahun 2005 sampai 2015. Hasil dari pengkajian tersebut menunjukan bahwa pendekatan biomedik seperti pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) dan post exposure prophylaxis (PEP) merupakan suatu pendekatan yang terbukti efektif dalam menurunkan penularan HIV terutama pada kelompok-kelompok dengan resiko tinggi seperti homoseksual atau heteroseksual. Sehingga, pemerintah Indonesia mungkin sudah bisa melakukan pengkajian yang dalam dan membuat pedoman tatalaksana pencegahan HIV dengan pendekatan ini.

 


ABSTRACT

The number of new cases of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infections has decreased significantly worldwide. However, in some regions such as Africa and South East Asian, new HIV infections remain high. Prevention strategies such as promoting condom use, male circumcision, and early HIV detection have been implemented well. However, all those approaches still putting people at high risk of HIV infection. The purpose of this review is to summarize current evidence about biomedical approach as an effective HIV prevention. A comprehensive computerized literature search was conducted using PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, clinicaltrials.gov, htpn.org, and meta-register to retrieved relevant literature published from 2005 to 2015 in English to review a current approach for HIV prevention. Biomedical approaches using antiretroviral drugs have shown good efficacy in the prevention of mother-child transmission for post exposure prophylaxis. Recent evidence has also found pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to be promising in preventing HIV. Both WHO and CDC recommended to integrate PrEP and post exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention strategies. Health care policy needs to consider the biomedical approach to HIV prevention, especially in Indonesia. Therefore, Indonesia government may start to develop a clinical guideline and deeply assess the possibility to implement this approach in clinical practice.

Keywords: biomedical approach, prevention, HIV, treatment


Keywords


biomedical approach, prevention, HIV, treatment

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References


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17509/jpki.v3i1.7478

DOI (PDF): http://dx.doi.org/10.17509/jpki.v3i1.7478.g4827

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