Pengelompokan Berdasarkan Kemampuan (Ability Grouping) dan Dampaknya bagi Peserta Didik

R. Risdiyanto

Abstract


Pengelompokan siswa di sekolah berdasarkan kemampuan siswa atau prestasi masa lalu telah dibahas sejak lama tetapi masih relevan dengan konteks pendidikan saat ini. Sistem seperti itu telah dipromosikan oleh beberapa peneliti pendidikan karena manfaatnya bagi siswa dan guru. Di antara manfaatnya adalah efektivitas pengajaran mengingat guru akan memiliki siswa dengan kecepatan belajar yang homogen dan memungkinkan sekolah untuk memberikan dukungan yang lebih baik bagi siswa yang berkemampuan lebih rendah. Di sisi lain, para ahli lain menentang metode tersebut dengan menyarankan bahwa itu akan mempromosikan segregasi sosial dan menurunkan motivasi siswa dengan prestasi masa lalu yang lebih rendah karena mereka tidak akan memiliki kesempatan untuk melihat ke rekan-rekan mereka yang lebih baik yang duduk di kelas yang sama. Artikel ulasan ini akan merangkum pemahaman terkini tentang masalah ini baik dari sudut pandang, pro dan kontra.

Kata Kunci: Ability Grouping; Pembelajaran; Metode Pembelajaran

 

Grouping students in schools based on students’ ability or past achievements has been discussed for ages but still relevant to recent educational context. Such system that has been promoted by some educational researchers due to its benefit for students and teachers. Among the benefits are effectiveness of instruction considering that teacher will have students with homogenous learning pace and allowing school to give better support for lower-ability pupils. On the other hand, other experts are against the method by suggesting that it will promote social segregation and demotivate students with lower past achievement as they will not have a chance to look up to their better peers sitting in the same class. This review article will summarize current understanding of the issue in both point of view, the pros and cons.


Keywords


Ability Grouping; Learning; Learning Methods

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.17509/jik.v18i1.36405

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