Combining Chatbot and Social Media: Enhancing Personal Learning Environment (PLE) in Language Learning

Nuria Haristiani, Mumu Muhamad Rifa’i


Transformation of the global learning landscape in twenty-first century is shaped by the uptake of digital technology and social network applications, along with students’ alteration of characteristics, needs, and demands. As an attempt to integrate digital technology and social network application, this study aimed to develop a chatbot-based application integrated with social media LINE to enhance language learning, specifically for learning Japanese grammar. The application, namely Gengobot, is a chatbot-based grammar application, consisting of Japanese Language Proficiency Test Level 5 and Level 4 (N5 and N4) grammar materials in three language: Indonesian, English, and Japanese. This study applied design-based research method with Waterfall application development procedure, and a questionnaire to gather feedbacks from fifty-three students regarding Gengobot features and contents. Gengobot application was successfully developed using code igniter framework, MySQL database, and webhook to integrate Gengobot application with LINE messaging API. Application testing confirmed that Gengobot is successfully developed and operated properly. The students agreed that Gengobot materials and features considered to be adequate, useful, user friendly, and suitable to support language learning. Gengobot is also highly accessible since it is integrated to social media LINE, allowing students to adjust its use to their own learning preference and needs, which is suitable to enhance students’ personal learning environment.


Chatbot; Grammar learning; Language learning; Personal Learning Environment (PLE); Social media

Full Text:



Abdul-Kader, S. A., & Woods, J. C. (2015). Survey on chatbot design techniques in speech conversation systems. International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications, 6(7), 72-80.

Alman, A., Balder, K. J., Maggi, F. M., & Van der Aa, H. (2020). Declo: A chatbot for user-friendly specification of declarative process models. Available from Business Process Management Demos, Retrieved on 20 August 2020.

Azwary, F., Indriani, F., & Nugrahadi, D. T. (2016). Question answering system berbasis artificial intelligence markup language sebagai media informasi. Klik-Kumpulan Jurnal Ilmu Komputer, 3(1), 48-60.

Balaji, S., & Murugaiyan, M. S. (2012). Waterfall vs. v-model vs. agile: A comparative study on sdlc. International Journal of Information Technology and Business Management, 2(1), 26-30.

Bii, P. (2013). Chatbot technology: A possible means of unlocking student potential to learn how to learn. Educational Research, 4(2), 218-221.

Blanco, J. A., & Upton, D. (2009). CodeIgniter 1.7. Birmingham: Packt Publishing.

Chari, K., & Agrawal, M. (2018). Impact of incorrect and new requirements on waterfall software project outcomes. Empirical Software Engineering, 23(1), 165-185.

Chow, C. Y., Kumar, K. N., Showman, K. A., & Vincent, J. (2011). United States Patent No. 7,987,459. Washington, DC: United States Patent and Trademark Office.

Dabbagh, N., & Kitsantas, A. (2012). Personal learning environments, social media, and self-regulated learning: A natural formula for connecting formal and informal learning. The Internet and Higher Education, 15(1), 3-8.

Dabbagh, N., & Reo, R. (2011). Back to the future: Tracing the roots and learning affordances of social software. Web 2.0-Based E-Learning: Applying Social Informatics for Tertiary Teaching form IGI Global, Retrieved on 20 August 2020.

Dahiya, M. (2017). A tool of conversation: Chatbot. International Journal of Computer Sciences and Engineering, 5(5), 158-161.

Dale, R. (2016). The return of the chatbots. Natural Language Engineering, 22(5), 811-817.

Danforth, D. R., Procter, M., Chen, R., Johnson, M., & Heller, R. (2009). Development of virtual patient simulations for medical education. Journal for Virtual Worlds Research, 2(2), 4-11.

Destiari, S. (2017). Metode Dediscerta Meningkatkan Kemampuan Membaca Pemahaman Siswa. Japanedu: Jurnal Pendidikan dan Pengajaran Bahasa Jepang, 2(1), 53-67.

Educause Learning Initiative (ELI). (2007). The seven things you should know about. Available from, Retrieved on 15 January 2008.

Eren, Ö. (2012). Students’ attitudes towards using social networking in foreign language classes: A Facebook example. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 3(20), 288-294.

Fayyaz, A. R., & Munir, M. (2014). Performance evaluation of PHP frameworks (CakePHP and Codeigniter) in relation to the object-relational mapping, with respect to load testing. Available from, Retrieved on 20 August 2020.

Fewell, N. (2014). Social networking and language learning with twitter. Research Papers in Language Teaching and Learning, 5(1), 223.

Fryer, L. K., Ainley, M., Thompson, A., Gibson, A., & Sherlock, Z. (2017). Stimulating and sustaining interest in a language course: An experimental comparison of chatbot and human task partners. Computers in Human Behavior, 75, 461-468.

Fryer, L. K., Nakao, K., & Thompson, A. (2019). Chatbot learning partners: Connecting learning experiences, interest and competence. Computers in Human Behavior, 93, 279-289.

Fryer, L., & Carpenter, R. (2006). Bots as language learning tools. Language Learning and Technology, 10(3), 8-14.

Goda, Y., Yamada, M., Matsukawa, H., Hata, K., & Yasunami, S. (2014). Conversation with a chatbot before an online EFL group discussion and the effects on critical thinking. The Journal of Information and Systems in Education, 13(1), 1-7.

Goyal, P., Pandey, S., & Jain, K. (2018). Developing a chatbot. Available from Deep Learning for Natural Language Processing, Apress, Berkeley, CA, Retrieved on 20 August 2020.

Haristiani, N. (2019). Artificial Intelligence (AI) chatbot as language learning medium: An inquiry. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1387(1), 012020. IOP Publishing.

Haristiani, N., & Danuwijaya, A. A. (2019). Gengobot: A chatbot-based grammar application on mobile instant messaging as language learning medium. Journal of Engineering Science and Technology, 14(6), 3158-3173.

Harkins, A. M. (2008). Leapfrog principles and practices: Core components of education 3.0 and 4.0. Futures Research Quarterly, 24(1), 19-31.

Hazari, S., North, A., & Moreland, D. (2019). Investigating pedagogical value of wiki technology. Journal of Information Systems Education, 20(2), 187-198.

Heller, B., Proctor, M., Mah, D., Jewell, L., & Cheung, B. (2005). Freudbot: An investigation of chatbot technology in distance education. Waynesville, North Carolina: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE).

Hemsley, J., & Mason, R. M. (2013). Knowledge and knowledge management in the social media age. Journal of Organizational Computing and Electronic Commerce, 23(1-2), 138-167.

Hidayat, R., Sugihartono, S., & Danasasmita, W. (2016). Model penggunaan media power point dalam pengembangan pola kalimat bahasa jepang tingkat dasar (Penelitian terhadap mahasiswa tingkat I Departemen Pendidikan Bahasa Jepang tahun 2015/2016). Japanedu: Jurnal Pendidikan dan Pengajaran Bahasa Jepang, 1(2), 121-134.

Hobert, S. (2019). Say hello to ‘coding tutor’! design and evaluation of a chatbot-based learning system supporting students to learn to program. Available from Association for Information Systems eLibrary, Retrieved on 20 August 2020.

Huang, J., Zhou, M., & Yang, D. (2007). Extracting chatbot knowledge from online discussion forums. International Joint Conferences on Artificial Intelligence, 7, 423-428.

Hussin, A. A. (2018). Education 4.0 made simple: Ideas for teaching. International Journal of Education and Literacy Studies, 6(3), 92-98.

Hustinawati, H., Kurnia Himawan, A., & Latifah, L. (2014). Performance analysis framework Codeigniter and CakePHP in website creation. International Journal of Computer Ap- plications, 94(20), 6–11.

Jacyntho, M. D., Schwabe, D., & Rossi, G. (2002). A software architecture for structuring complex web applications. Journal of Web Engineering, 1(1), 37-60.

Jia, J. (2004). The study of the application of a web-based chatbot system on the teaching of foreign languages. Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education International Conference. Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE).

Jia, J. (2009). Computer simulation in educational communication: A computer assisted English learning chatbot based on textual knowledge and reasoning. Knowledge-based Systems, 22(4), 249-255.

Kerlyl, A., Hall, P., & Bull, S. (2006). Bringing chatbots into education: Towards natural language negotiation of open learner models. International Conference on Innovative Techniques and Applications of Artificial Intelligence, 179-192.

Kofler, M. (2001). What is mySQL?. Available from MySQL, Retrieved on 20 August 2020.

Krassmann, A. L., Paz, F. J., Silveira, C., Tarouco, L. M. R., & Bercht, M. (2018). Conversational agents in distance education: Comparing mood states with students’ perception. Creative Education, 9(11), 1726-1742.

Lancor, L., & Katha, S. (2013). Analyzing PHP frameworks for use in a project-based software engineering course. Available from Proceeding of the 44th ACM Technical Symposium on Computer Science Education, Retrieved on 20 August 2020, 519-524.

Mason, R. (2006). Learning technologies for adult continuing education. Studies in Continuing Education, 28(2), 121-133.

Matsuura, S., & Ishimura, R. (2017). Chatbot and dialogue demonstration with a humanoid robot in the lecture class. Available from International Conference on Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction, Retrieved on 20 August 2020, 233-246.

McLoughlin, C., & Lee, M. J. (2010). Personalised and self-regulated learning in the web 2.0 era: International exemplars of innovative pedagogy using social software. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 26(1), 28-43.

Oktaviany, F., Philiyanti, F., & Prasetio, V. M. (2020). Implementation of Active Knowledge Sharing Strategy in Intermediate Level Dokkai through Scientific Approach. Japanedu: Jurnal Pendidikan dan Pengajaran Bahasa Jepang, 5(1), 9-14.

O'reilly, T. (2007). What is web 2.0: Design patterns and business models for the next generation of software. Communications and Strategies, 1(65), 17.

Palasundram, K., Sharef, N., M., Nasharuddin, N., Kasmiran, K., & Azman, A. (2019). Sequence to sequence model performance for education chatbot. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning (IJET), 14(24), 56-68.

Pandey, S. (2016). Development of a web application (iDomain) in the Codeigniter framework: Hosting accounts management system development. Available from, Retrieved on 20 August 2020.

Prokofyeva, N., & Boltunova, V. (2016). Analysis and practical application of PHP frameworks in development of web information systems. Procedia Computer Science, 104(2017), 51-56.

Puncreobutr, V. (2016). Education 4.0: New challenge of learning. St. Theresa Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 2(2), 92-97.

Quan-Haase, A., & Young, A. L. (2010). Uses and gratifications of social media: A comparison of Facebook and instant messaging. Bulletin of Science, Technology and Society, 30(5), 350-361.

Rankin, M. (2009). Some general comments on the “Twitter Experiment”. Available from, Retrieved on 20 August 2020.

Ristemi, I., Trpkovska, M. A., & Cico, B. (2019). MyGitIssues web application as a solution in dealing with issues on GitHub. Available from Mediterranean Conference on Embedded Computing (MECO), Retrieved on 20 August 2020.

Rosell-Aguilar, F. (2018). Autonomous language learning through a mobile application: a user evaluation of the busuu app. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 31(8), 854-881.

Rosen, D., & Nelson, C. (2008). Web 2.0: A new generation of learners and education. Computers in the Schools, 25(3-4), 211-225.

Royce, W. (1970). Software project management. The Software Lifecycle Model (Waterfall Model). New Delhi: Person Education in South Asia.

Rubin, N. (2010). Creating a user-centric learning environment with campus pack personal learning spaces: PLS webinar. Available from Learning Objects Community, Retrieved on 20 August 2020.

Schwarz, O. (2011). Who moved my conversation? Instant messaging, intertextuality and new regimes of intimacy and truth. Media, Culture and Society, 33(1), 71-87.

Selwyn, N. (2007). Web 2.0 applications as alternative environments for informal learning-a critical review. CERI-Keris International Expert Meeting on ICT and Educational Performance, 16, 1-10.

Shevat, A. (2017). Designing bots: Creating conversational experiences. Gravenstein Highway North, Sebastopol: O'Reilly Media, Inc.

Smith, B., Alvarez-Torres, M. J., & Zhao, Y. (2003). Features of CMC technologies and their impact on language learners’ online interaction. Computers in Human Behavior, 19(6), 703-729.

Smutny, P., & Schreiberova, P. (2020). Chatbots for learning: A review of educational chatbots for the Facebook messenger. Computers and Education, 151, 2-11.

Solomon, G., & Schrum, L. (2007). Web 2.0: New tools, new schools. Washington, DC: International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE).

Song, D., Oh, E. Y., & Rice, M. (2017). Interacting with a conversational agent system for educational purposes in online courses. Available from International Conference on Human System Interactions (HSI), Retrieved on 20 August 2020.

Tang, Y., & Hew, K. F. (2017). Is mobile instant messaging (MIM) useful in education? examining its technological, pedagogical, and social affordances. Educational Research Review, 21, 85-104.

Tehusijarana, K. (2018). LINE launches dedicated news app for Indonesian users. Available from, Retrieved on 16 August 2020.

Thurlow, C., Lengel, L., & Tomic, A. (2004). Computer mediated communication. London: Sage Publication Ltd.

Tilfarlioglu, F. Y. (2011). An international dimension of the student's attitudes towards the use of english in web 2.0 technology. Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology-TOJET, 10(3), 63-68.

Wang, Y. F., & Petrina, S. (2013). Using learning analytics to understand the design of an intelligent language tutor–chatbot Lucy. Editorial Preface, 4(11), 124-131.

Widiaty, I., Riza, L. S., Abdullah, A. G., & Mubaroq, S. R. (2020). Multiplatform application technology–based heutagogy on learning batik: A curriculum development framework. Indonesian Journal of Science and Technology, 5(1), 45-61.

Ziegler, S. G. (2007). The (mis) education of generation m. Learning, Media and Technology, 32(1), 69-81.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2020 Indonesian Journal of Science and Technology

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Indonesian Journal of Science and Technology is published by UPI.
StatCounter - Free Web Tracker and Counter
View My Stats