Corncob-Derived Sulfonated Magnetic Solid Catalyst Synthesis as Heterogeneous Catalyst in The Esterification of Waste Cooking Oil and Bibliometric Analysis

Primata Mardina, Hesti Wijayanti, Rinna Juwita, Meilana Dharma Putra, Iryanti Fatyasari Nata, Rowina Lestari, Muhammad Faqih Al-Amin, Regi Abizar Suciagi, Oktefani Kusuma Rawei, Liza Lestari


A corncob-derived magnetic solid acid catalyst was synthesized through the sulfonation method and an impregnation process, respectively. In the sulfonation process, the concentrated H2SO4 was utilized as an activation agent to obtain acidic properties. The solution of ferric sulphate-ferrous sulphate was utilized for impregnation to generate the magnetic behaviour of the material. The prepared magnetic acid solid catalyst had a high saturation magnetisation value of 16.48 emu/g and a total acidity of 1.43 mmol/g. The performance of the catalyst was evaluated in the esterification reaction of waste cooking oil. The best result presented 86.12% FFA conversion under reaction conditions of 5% catalyst loading and a 1:15 oil-to-methanol molar ratio at 60oC for 4 h. The catalyst was separated magnetically from the reaction solution and exhibited a good reusability with 61% remaining active after 5 consecutive cycles of reaction. This study resulted in a promising method to obtain magnetic-sulfonated carbon-based catalyst from corncob residue, and it is economical potentially and environmentally friendly for the esterification of low-quality feedstock for biodiesel production.


Corncob; Impregnation; Magnetic; Solid acid catalyst; Sulfonation

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