Teachers’ Self-Efficacy as a Mediator of Their Perception and Behavior regarding Creative Teaching for Elementary School Students

Winda Ria Sutjonong, Rose Mini Agoes Salim, Shahnaz Safitri


Creativity must be considered in teaching elementary school students to prepare them to be more innovative. It needs to be fostered from an early age because children at that age are in a critical period, so it will be easier to teach them to think creatively. The teachers have roles to carry out creative teaching to foster their students’ creativity. Creative teaching is influenced by the teachers’ perception of creativity, which depends on several factors, one of which is the teachers’ self-efficacy. This study aims to examine whether the teacher’s self-efficacy can mediate the relationship between teachers’ perceptions of creativity and their creative teaching behavior in class. Participants of this study were 38 elementary school teachers who were participants in the Creative Teaching Workshop. The measuring tools used in this study are the Creativity Fostering Teacher Index (CFTI) and Teaching for Creativity Scale (TFCS). The data obtained were analyzed quantitatively using correlation tests (Pearson’s correlation) and mediation tests with Macro PROCESS. The results found that teachers’ self-efficacy partially mediated teachers’ perceptions of creativity and creative teaching behavior, which means that the relationship between teachers’ perceptions and behaviors can be explained directly and indirectly through the teachers’ self–efficacy. 


creativity; creative teaching; teachers’ perspective; teachers’ self-efficacy; teachers’ behavior

Full Text:



Ata-Akturk, A., & Sevimli-Celik, S. (2020). Creativity in early childhood teacher education: Beliefs and practices. International Journal of Early Years Education, 1–20. https://doi.org/10.1080/09669760.2020.1754174

Bandura, A. (2006). Guide for constructing self-efficacy scales. In Self-efficacy belief of adolescents (pp.307-337).

Bandura, A. (2012). On the functional properties of Perceived Self-Efficacy Revisited. Journal of Management, 38(1), 9–44.


Barbot, B., Besançon, M., & Lubart, T. (2015). Creative potential in educational settings: Its nature, measure, and nurture. Education 3-13, 43(4), 371–381. https://doi.org/10.1080/03004279.2015.1020643

Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator–mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51(6), 1173–1182. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.51.6.1173

Çayırdağ, Nur. (2017). Creativity Fostering Teaching: Impact of Creative Self-efficacy and Teacher Efficacy. Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice. 17. 10.12738/estp.2017.6.0437.

Cropley, A.J. (1997) Fostering creativity in the classroom: General principles. In M. A. Runco. (Ed.) Creativity research handbook (Vol 1, pp.83-114). Hampton Press.

Fletcher, L. S. (2011). Creative thinking in schools: Finding the "just right" challenge for students. Gifted Child Today, 34(2), 37-42

Florida, R., Mellander, C., & King, K. (2015). The Global Creativity Index 2015. The Martin Prosperity Institute.

Friedman, I. A., & Kass, E. (2002). Teacher self-efficacy: A classroom-organization conceptualization. Teaching and Teacher Education, 18(6), 675–686. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0742-051x(02)00027-6

Hadjam, M. N. R., & Widhiarso, W. (2011). Efikasi Mengajar Sebagai Mediator Peranan Faktor kepribadian terhadap performasi Mengajar Guru [Teaching Efficacy as a Mediator of the Role of Personality Factors on Teacher Teaching Performance]. Humanitas: Indonesian Psychological Journal, 8(1), 1. https://doi.org/10.26555/humanitas.v8i1.447

Hao, N., Xue, H., Yuan, H., Wang, Q., & Runco, M. A. (2017). Enhancing creativity: Proper body posture meets proper emotion. Acta Psychologica, 173, 32–40. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actpsy.2016.12.005

Hayes, A. F. (2013). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis. Guilford Publications.

Kettler, T., Lamb, K. N., Willerson, A., & Mullet, D. R. (2018). Teachers’ perceptions of creativity in the classroom. Creativity Research Journal, 30(2), 164–171. https://doi.org/10.1080/10400419.2018.1446503

Kurniawati, F., Saleh, A.Y., & Safitri, S. (2021). The effects of intellectual humility on creativity fostering teacher behavior: Teacher subjective wellbeing as mediator [Manuscript submitted for publication]. Educational Psychology Journal.

Lee, I. R., & Kemple, K. (2014). Preservice teachers' personality traits and engagement in creative activities as predictors of their support for Children’s Creativity. Creativity Research Journal, 26(1), 82–94. https://doi.org/10.1080/10400419.2014.87366

Leggett, N. (2017). Early childhood creativity: Challenging educators in their role to intentionally develop creative thinking in children. Early Childhood Education Journal, 45(6), 845–853. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10643-016-0836-4

Mullet, D. R., Willerson, A., N. Lamb, K., & Kettler, T. (2016). Examining teacher perceptions of creativity: A systematic review of the literature. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 21, 9–30. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tsc.2016.05.001

Papalia, D. E., & Martorell, G. (2015). Experience human development. McGraw-Hill Education.

Peraturan Pemerintah (PP) tentang Guru (2021, October 19). PP No. 74 Tahun 2008 Tentang Guru [JDIH bpk ri]. https://peraturan.bpk.go.id/Home/Details/4892/pp-no-74-tahun-2008

Reilly, R. C., Lilly, F., Bramwell, G., & Kronish, N. (2011). A synthesis of research concerning Creative teachers in a Canadian context. Teaching and Teacher Education, 27(3), 533–542. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2010.10.007

Rinkevich, J. L. (2011). Creative teaching: Why it matters and where to begin. The Clearing House: A Journal of Educational Strategies, Issues and Ideas, 84(5), 219–223. https://doi.org/10.1080/00098655.2011.575416

Roy, J. (2013). Elementary Teacher Perceptions of Teaching Practices that Foster Creative Thinking in Students. Inquiry: The University of Arkansas Undergraduate Research Journal, 14(1).

Rubenstein, L. D. V., Ridgley, L. M., Callan, G. L., Karami, S., & Ehlinger, J. (2018). How teachers perceive factors that influence creativity development: Applying a social cognitive theory perspective. Teaching and Teacher Education, 70, 100–110. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2017.11.012

Rubenstein, L. D. V., McCoach, D. B., & Siegle, D. (2013). Teaching for creativity scales: An instrument to examine teachers’ perceptions of factors that allow for the teaching of creativity. Creativity Research Journal, 25(3), 324–334. https://doi.org/10.1080/10400419.2013.813807

Sarıçam, H., & Sakız, H. (2014). Burnout and Teacher self-efficacy among teachers working in special education institutions in Turkey. Educational Studies, 40(4), 423–437. https://doi.org/10.1080/03055698.2014.930340

Soffel, J. (2016, March 10). Ten 21st-century skills every student needs. World Economic Forum. https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2016/03/21st-century-skills-future-jobs-students/.

Soh, K.-C. (2000). Indexing creativity fostering teacher behavior: A preliminary validation study. The Journal of Creative Behavior, 34(2), 118–134. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2162-6057.2000.tb01205.x

Wangid, M. N., Mustadi, A., & Mokshien, S. E. (2020). The Exploration of teachers’ efficacy in teaching: Comparative study in Indonesia and Malaysia. Jurnal Cakrawala Pendidikan, 39(2), 257–268. https://doi.org/10.21831/cp.v39i2.30012

DOI: https://doi.org/10.53400/mimbar-sd.v9i1.44253


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 Mimbar Sekolah Dasar

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

View Mimbar Sekolah Dasar Stats