Designing Active Learning Enriched Biotechnology Instruction Module (BIM) for Middle School Science Course

Serap Öz Aydın, Nursen Azizoğlu, Fatma Bilgican Yılmaz


This study aimed at designing instructional material named Biotechnology Instruction Module (BIM) which is enriched with active learning methods to enhance the 8th grade students’ learning of the topic. The development of the teaching materials proceeded within the stages of the ADDIE instructional design model. The final form of the instructional module comprised active learning materials of DNA Isolation Experiment, Bulletin Boards, 4x2 Biotechnology Learning Station, Case Studies Text, and “What Would You Do If You Were…?” activities. Instructional module covers the topics such as genetically modified organisms (GMO), gene therapy, cloning and bioremediation. The “Biotechnology Instruction Module” is expected to help students to learn in a meaningful way the rapidly changing and renewed biotechnology issues, to foster knowledge and understanding of key issues, to promote socioscientific discourse in class, and to encourage higher order thinking skills.  All the data show that the instructional module applied in the real classroom environment is successful in realizing the learning objectives of the subject of biotechnology.


Biotechnology education; biotechnology instruction module; bulletin board; case study; learning station

Full Text:



Akçay, S. (2016). The analysis of prospective teachers’ biotechnology perception through metaphors. Inonu University Journal of the Faculty of Education, 17(3), 139-151.

Albayrak, H. (2016). The effect of the station technique to students' academic achievement in astronomy topics and students' attitudes to astronomy (Publication No. 449212) [Master’s thesis, Erzincan University]. National Theses Center YÖK.

Altun, A., Çelik, S., & Elçin, A. E. (2011). The effect of guiding materials related to genetics engineering, biotechnology and molecular biology on the success of students. Hacettepe University Journal of Education, 40, 21-32.

Biotechnology and Biosecurity Special Commission (BBSC). (2000). Biotechnology and biosecurity special commission report (Report No. 2515). State Planning Organization.

Berry, R. M., Borenstein, J., & Butera, R. J. (2013). Contentious problems in bioscience and biotechnology: A pilot study of an approach to ethics education. Science and Engineering Ethics, 19(2), 653-668.

Bilgican, F. (2017). Ortaokul biyoteknoloji konusunun aktif öğrenmeye dayalı öğretimi için material tasarımı (Publication No. 474220) [Master’s thesis, Balıkesir University]. National Theses Center YÖK.

Biricik, G. (1999). İlköğretim 2.sınıf matematik öğretiminde “aktif etkileşimli öğrenme yaklaşımı” nın öğrenci başarısına etkisi (Publication No. 89633) [Master’s thesis, Uludağ University]. National Theses Center YÖK.

Borgerding, L. A., Sadler, T. D., & Koroly, M. J. (2013). Teachers’ concerns about biotechnology education. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 22(2), 133-147.

Brown, T. A. (2010). Gene cloning and DNA analysis: An introduction (6th ed.) John Wiley & Sons.

Cavanagh, H., Hood, J., & Wilkinson, J. (2005). Riverina high school students’ views of biotechnology. Electronic Journal of Biotechnology, 8(2), 121-127.

Cebesoy, Ü. B., & Dönmez Şahin, M. (2013). Investigating pre-service science teachers’ attitudes towards socioscientific issues in terms of gender and class level. Marmara University Atatürk Education Faculty Journal of Educational Sciences, 37(37), 100-117.

Chen, S. Y., & Raffan, J. (1999). Biotechnology: Students knowledge and attitudes in the UK and Taiwan. Journal of Biological Education, 34(1), 17-23.

Chen, S. Y., Chu, Y. R., Lin, C. Y., & Chiang, T. Y. (2016). Students’ knowledge of and attitudes towards biotechnology revisited, 1995-2014: Changes in agriculture biotechnology but not in medical biotechnology. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education, 44(5), 475-491.

Corn, J., Pittendrigh, B. R., & Orvis, K. S. (2004). Genomics analogy model for educators (GAME): from jumping genes to alternative splicing. Journal of Biological Education, 39(1), 24-26.

Çamur, E. (2016). The relationship of pre-service biology teachers' attitudes towards biotechnology practices and their scientific epistemological beliefs (Publication No. 429399) [Master’s thesis, Gazi University]. National Theses Center YÖK.

Dawson, V. (2007). An exploration of high school (12-17 year old) students’ understanding of, and attitudes towards biotechnology processes. Research in Science Education, 37(1), 59-73.

Dawson, V., & Schibeci, R. (2003). Western Australian school students understanding of biotechnology. International Journal of Science Education, 25(1), 57-69.

Demir, A., & Pala, A. (2007). Perceptions of society towards genetically modified organisms. Journal of Animal Production, 48(1), 33-43.

Doğru, M. S. (2011). Primary 8 grade students’ about biotechnology approaches and measure the levels of knowledge (Publication No. 284172) [Master’s thesis, Kastamonu University). National Theses Center YÖK.

Dori, Y.J., Tal, R. T., & Tsaushu, M. (2003). Teaching biotechnology through case studies - Can we improve higher order thinking skills of nonscience majors?. Science Education, 87, 767–793.

Dunham, T., Wells, J., & White, K. (2002). Biotechnology education: A multiple instructional strategies approach. Journal of Technology Education, 14(1), 65-78.

Erdağı, S., & Önel, A. (2015). Evaluation of student opinions and performances in science and technology courses taught via station technique. e-Kafkas Journal of Educational Research, 2(1), 28-37.

Eroğlu, S. (2006). The effect of audio visual-material usage of third grade high school students' learning biotechnological conception and their attitude (Publication No. 191158) [Master’s thesis, Gazi University]. National Theses Center YÖK.

EIBE. (n.d.). The European initiative for biotechnology education. Leibniz Institute for Science and Mathematics Education. Retrieved May 20, 2020, from

Fernandez-Novell, J. M., Arimany, C., & Medina, L. (2013, July 1-3). Improving biochemistry, molecular biology and biotechnology education at secondary school level [Paper presentation]. 5th International Conference on Education and New Learning Technologies. Barcelona, Spain.

France, B. (2000). Biotechnology teaching models: What is their role in biotechnology education? Journal of Science Education, 22(9), 1027-1039.

France, B. (2007). Location, location, location: Positioning biotechnology education for the 21st century. Studies in Science Education, 43(1), 88-122.

Gagne, R. M., Wager, W. W., Gola, K. C., & Keller, J. M. (2005). Principles of instructional design. Wadsworth/Thompson Learning.

Gall, M. D., Gall, J. P., & Borg, W. R. (2003). Educational research: An introduction (7th ed). Allyn & Bacon.

Genetic Science Learning Center (2018, October 23). How to extract DNA from anything living.

Gök, Ö., Doğan, A., Doymuş, K., & Karaçöp, A. (2009). The effects of cooperative learning on elementary school students’ academic achievement and attitudes toward science. Gazi University Journal of Gazi Educational Faculty, 29(1), 193-209.

Güccük, A. (2013). Effect of case teaching on learning genetics engineering subject meaningfully and retention of the learning (Publication No. 333807) [Master’s thesis, Inonu University]. National Theses Center YÖK.

Güneş, E. (2009). The effect of learning stations instruction on gain score and retention in science and technology lesson (Publication No. 258342) [Master’s thesis, Hacettepe University]. National Theses Center YÖK.

Harms, U. (2002). Biotechnology education in schools. Electronic Journal of Biotechnology, 5(3), 205-211.

Herreid, C. F. (2004). Can case studies be used to teach critical thinking? Journal of College Science Teaching, 33(6), 12-14.

Herreid, C. F. (2011). Case study teaching. New Direction for Teaching and Learning, 128, 31-40.

Hohenshell, L., Hand, B., & Staker, J. (2004). Promoting conceptual understanding of biotechnology: Writing to a younger audience. American Biology Teacher, 66(5), 333-338.

Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. T. (1999). Making cooperative learning work. Theory into Practice, 38(2), 67-73.

Johnstone, A. H., & Mahmoud, N. A. (1980). Isolating topics of high perceived difficulty in school biology. Journal of Biological Education, 14(2), 163-166.

Kalem, S., & Fer, S. (2003). The effects of active learning model on the learning, teaching and communication process of students. Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice, 3(2), 433-461.

Kaya, N. (2009). Educational achievement and attitude related impacts of biotechnology education on co-ed groups through practical testings and educational material designs (Publication No. 237751) [Master’s thesis, Muğla University]. National Theses Center YÖK.

Kelly, P. (1990). Biology and ethics: A theme and variations. Journal of Biological Education, 24, 18–22.

Keskin, N. (2003). The effect of poster presentation activity on science education 3rd grade students' learning gene cloning (Publication No. 133721) [Master’s thesis, Gazi University]. National Theses Center YÖK.

Klop, T., & Severiens, S. E. (2007). An exploration of attitudes towards modern biotechnology; a study among Dutch secondary school students. International Journal of Science Education, 29(5), 663-679.

Krageskov Eriksen, K. (2015). Special section-focus on ethics: to know or not to know? Integrating ethical aspects of genomic healthcare in the education of health professionals. The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 43(2), 81–87.

Lock, R., & Miles, C. (1993). Biotechnology and genetic engineering: Students' knowledge and attitudes. Journal of Biological Education, 27(4), 267-272.

Mehta, M. D., & Gair, J. J. (2001). Social, political, legal and ethical areas of inquiry in biotechnology and genetic engineering. Technology in Society, 23(2), 241-264.

Moreland, J., Jones, A., & Cowie, B. (2006). Developing pedagogical content knowledge for the new sciences: The example of biotechnology, Teaching Education, 17(2), 143-155.

Mueller, A. L, Knobloch, N. A., & Orvis, K. S. (2015). Exploring the effects of active learning on high school students’ outcomes and teachers’ perceptions of biotechnology and genetics instruction. Journal of Agricultural Education, 56(2), 138-152.

Mullis, K., Faloona, F., Scharf, S., Saiki, R., Horn, G., & Erlich, H. (1986). Specific enzymatic amplification of DNA in vitro: The polymerase chain reaction. Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology, 51, 263-273.

Nordqvist, O., & Aronsson, H. (2019). It is time for a new direction in biotechnology education research. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education, 47(2), 189-200.

Öz Aydın, S. (2004). Morphologic, molecular and systematic evaluation of some Turkish Satureja species (Publication No. 149862). [Doctoral dissertation, Balıkesir University]. National Theses Center YÖK.

Özdemir, O. (2005). The misconception of primary 8. grade students concerning genetics and biotechnology. Ondokuz Mayıs Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 20, 49-62.

Öztürk Akar, E. (2017). Turkish university students’ knowledge of biotechnology and attitudes toward biotechnological applications. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education, 45(2), 115-125.

Paolella, M. J. (1991). Biotechnology outline for classroom use. American Biology Teacher, 53(2), 98-101.

Radford, A., & Bird-Stewart, J. A. (1982). Teaching genetics in schools. Journal of Biological Education,16(3), 177-180.

Raudenbush, S. W., Rowan, B., & Cheong, Y. F. (1993). Higher order instructional goals in secondary schools: Class, teacher and school influences. American Educational Research Journal, 30(3), 523– 555.

Reece, J. B., Urry, L.A., Cain, M.L., Wasserman, S.A., Minorsky, P.V., & Jackson, R.B. (2015). Campbell Biyoloji. [Campbell Biology 9th ed.] (E. Gündüz, and İ. Türkan, Trans.). Palme Publishing.

Resnick, L. B., & Resnick, D. P. (1992). Assessing the thinking curriculum: New tools for educational reform. In B. R. Gifford & M. C. O'Connor (Eds.), Changing assessments (pp. 37–75). Springer.

Saral, S. (2008). The effect of case based learning on tenth grade students’ understanding of human reproductive system and their perceived motivation (Publication No. 177332) [Master’s thesis, Middle East Technical University]. National Theses Center YÖK.

Sıcaker, A., & Öz Aydın, S. (2015). Evaluation of biotechnology and genetic engineering concepts by students. Ondokuz Mayis University Journal of Faculty of Education,34(2), 51-67.

Sıcaker, A., Öz Aydın, S., & Saçkes, M. (2020). Ortaöğretim biyoteknoloji bilgi testi (OBBT) [The secondary school biotechnology knowledge test (SBKT)]. PAU Journal of Education, 50, 426-448.

Simon, R. M. (2009). Gender differences in knowledge and attitude towards biotechnology. Public Understanding of Science, 20(40), 1-12.

Sönmez, A., & Kılınç, A. (2012). Preservice science teachers’ self-efficacy beliefs about teaching GM foods: The potential effects of some psychometric factors. Necatibey Faculty of Education Electronic Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 6(2), 49-76.

Sönmez, E. (2014). The effects of extra-curricular activities of biotechnology on students’ biotechnology knowledge and their nature of science perceptions (Publication No. 355491) [Master’s thesis, Kastamonu University]. National Theses Center YÖK.

Steele, F., & Aubusson, P. (2004). The challenge in teaching biotechnology. Research in Science Education, 34, 365–387.

Taraban, R., Box, C., Myers, R., Pollard, R., & Bowen, C. W. (2007). Effects of active-learning experiences on achievement, attitudes and behaviors in high school biology. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 44(7), 960-979.

Temiz, B. (2010). The effect of 5e model supported with case study on 6th grade students academic success in the unit “The Systems of Body Structures” and attitude towards science (Publication No.278173) [Master’s thesis, Gazi University]. National Theses Center YÖK.

Thieman, W. J., & Palladino, M. A. (2013). Biyoteknolojiye giriş. [Introduction to biotechnology 3rd ed.] (M. Tekelioğlu, Trans.). Palme Publishing.

Toth, E. E., & Janstova, V. (2013, November 18-20). From protocol to inquiry: blended learning for workforce education in biotechnology [Paper presentation]. 6th International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation. Seville, Spain.

Turkish Ministry of National Education (MoNE). (2013). İlköğretim kurumları fen bilimleri dersi öğretim programı (3, 4, 5, 6, 7 ve 8. sınıflar) [Science course curriculum for primary education institutions (grades 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8)].

Turkish Ministry of National Education (MoNE). (2018). Fen bilimleri dersi öğretim programı (ilkokul ve ortaokul 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 ve 8. sınıflar) [Science course curriculum (primary and middle school grades 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8].

United Nations (1992). Report of the United Nations conference on environment and development.

Ün Açıkgöz, K. (2014). Aktif öğrenme [Active learning] (13th ed.). Biliş Publishing.

Yazıcı, N. N. (2009). The effects of science fiction and bioethics group discussions on academic achievement and attitudes towards biotechnologies (Publication No. 258856) [Master’s thesis, Muğla University]. National Theses Center YÖK.

Zohar, A. (1996). Transfer and retention of reasoning skills taught in biological contexts. Research in Science and Technology Education, 14(2), 205–219.



Copyright (c) 2023 Mimbar Sekolah Dasar

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

View Mimbar Sekolah Dasar Stats