Classroom-Based Assessment System to Improve the Quality of Learning in Malaysia and Indonesia

Jenny Indrastoeti Siti Poerwanti, Sri Marmoah, Supianto Supianto, Sukarno Sukarno, Siti Istiyati, Hasan Mahfud


Malaysia and Indonesia have introduced their educational systems and are developing human resources using learning evaluation systems. Based on the issues raised, this study aims to portray the learning assessment in primary schools in Indonesia and Malaysia in accordance with the educational program utilized in both countries and the impediments experienced in carrying out classroom-based evaluation in schools. This studyused the research literature survey technique to gather information on a research topic fromnews, official government documents, etc. The analysis was conducted using a compilation of data from several references related to the assessment of primary school learning in Merdeka curricula, or other documents relevant to this study. The results of this study revelead that the assessment used in primaryschools in Indonesia refers to Minister of Education and Culture Regulation No. 21 of 2022, namely formative assessment and summative assessment. The Merdeka curriculum aimsat create a positive, high-quality learning atmosphere in Indonesia. Education system in Malaysia implements the concept of school-based assessment (SBA) in line with the implementation of Lower School Standard Curriculum, known as Primary School Curriculum. The ability to develop classroom-based assessments, the creativity of teachers in designing assessments, and knowledge literacy issues are all barriers to implementing classroom-based assessments in both countries.


Education System; Indonesia; Learning Assessment; Malaysia

Full Text:



Alruwais, N., Wills, G., & Wald, M. (2018). Advantages and Challenges of Using e-Assessment. International Journal of Information and Education Technology, 8(1), 34–37.

Amini, R., & Fitria, Y. (2019, October). The development of performance assessment based on integrated model on static electrical in elementry school. In Journal of Physics: Conference Series (Vol. 1317, No. 1, p. 012167). IOP Publishing.

Ananda, R., & Fadhilaturrahmi, F. (2018). Analisis Kemampuan Guru Sekolah Dasar dalam Implementasi Pembelajaran Tematik di SD [Analysis of Elementary School Teachers' Ability in Implementing Thematic Learning in Elementary Schools]. Jurnal Basicedu, 2(2), 11-21.

Barlian, U. C., & Iriantara, Y. (2021). Penerapan Kurikulum 2013 revisi di masa pandemi pada SMK IBS Tathmainul Quluub Indramayu [Implementation of the revised 2013 Curriculum during the pandemic at SMK IBS Tathmainul Quluub Indramayu]. Jurnal Pendidikan Indonesia, 2(01), 118-126.

Bengtsson, M. (2016). How to plan and perform a qualitative study using content analysis. NursingPlus open, 2, 8-14.

Black, P., & Wiliam, D. (2018). Classroom assessment and pedagogy. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice, 25(6), 551–575.

Broadbent, J., Panadero, E., & Boud, D. (2018). Implementing summative assessment with a formative flavour: A case study in a large class. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 43(2), 307-322.

Carlson, M. P., & Bloom, I. (2005). The cyclic nature of problem solving: an emergent multidimensional problem- solving framework. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 58, 45–75. DOI:10.1007/s10649-005-0808-x.

Da Wan, C., Sirat, M., & Razak, D. A. (2018). Education in Malaysia towards a developed nation. In: ISEAS Economics Working Paper no. 2018-4. Singapore: ISEAS.

Gezer, T., Wang, C., Polly, A., Martin, C., Pugalee, D., & Lambert, R. (2021). The relationship between formative assessment and summative assessment in Primary grade mathematics classrooms. International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education, 13(5), 673-685. Retrieved from

Granberg, C., Palm, T., & Palmberg, B. (2021). A case study of a formative assessment practice and the effects on students’ self-regulated learning. Studies in Educational Evaluation, 68, 100955.

Hannula, M. S. (2002). Attitude towards mathematics: Emotions, expectations and values. Educational studies in Mathematics, 49(1), 25-46. doi:10.1023/A:1016048823497.

Hilaliyah, T. (2018). Penilaian Berbasis Kelas [Classroom-based Assessment]. Jurnal Membaca Bahasa dan Sastra Indonesia, 3(1), 73-84.

Isa, A. M., Mydin, A. A., & Abdullah, A. G. K. (2022). Autonomy in Classroom Assessment: Teachers' Perceptions on the Abolition of Level 1 Biennials Examinations in Malaysian National Schools. Malaysian Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities (MJSSH), 7(3), e001331-e001331.

Ismail, S. M., Rahul, D. R., Patra, I., & Rezvani, E. (2022). Formative vs. summative assessment: impacts on academic motivation, attitude toward learning, test anxiety, and self-regulation skill. Language Testing in Asia, 12(1), 40.

John, M. (2018). Assessment reform in Malaysia: Policy into practice in primary schools [Doctoral dissertation, University of Stirling]. STORRE: Stirling Online Research Repository.

Khamis, S., & Selamat, A. (2019). The Use of Feedback in the Classroom Assessment: A Case Study. International Journal of Academic Research in progressive Education and Development, 8(3), 325-334.

Koh, E. T., Owen, W. L., Koh, E. T., & Owen, W. L. (2000). Descriptive research and qualitative research. Introduction to Nutrition and Health research, 219-248.

Kusumastuti, A., & Khoiron, A. M. (2019). Metode penelitian kualitatif [Qualitative research methods]. Lembaga Pendidikan Sukarno Pressindo (LPSP).

Lan, C., & Fan, S. (2019). Developing classroom-based language assessment literacy for in-service EFL teachers: The gaps. Studies in Educational Evaluation, 61, 112-122.

Lim, C. S., & Chew, C. M. (2019). Implementation of school-based assessment (SBA) in Malaysian primary mathematics curriculum: Issues and challenges. School Mathematics Curricula: Asian Perspectives and Glimpses of Reform, 189-205.

Madjapuni, M. N., & Harun, J. (2019). Kemahiran Berfikir Kritis Melalui Permainan Digital dalam Persekitaran Pembelajaran Konstruktivisme Sosial [Critical Thinking Skills through Digital Games in a Social Constructivism Learning Environment]. International Journal of Education, 4(28), 73-83.

Magdalena, I., Oktavia, D., & Nurjamilah, P. (2021). Analysis of Summative Evaluation in Thematic Learning for Class VI Students at SDN Batujaya in the Pandemic Era Covid-19. ARZUSIN, 1(1), 137–150.

Mairing, J. P. (2014). Student’s difficulties in solving problem of real analysis. In Proceeding of International Conference on Research, Implementation And Education Of Mathematics And Sciences (pp. 289-298).

Mak, P., & Lee, I. (2014). Implementing assessment for learning in L2 writing: An activity theory perspective. System, 47, 73–87.

Maladerita, W., Septiana, V. W., Gistituati, N., & Betri, A. (2021). The Role of Teachers in Implementing the 2013 Curriculum in Elementary Schools. Educative: Journal of Educational Sciences, 3(6), 4771–4776.

Malaysian Examination Syndicate. (2020). School Based Assessment Management Handbook (PBS). Ministry of Education.

Minister of Education, Culture, Research and Technology Regulation Number 21 of 2022 concerning Educational Assessment Standards in Early Childhood Education, Basic Education Levels and Secondary Education Levels. Retrieved from:

Mohd Pilus, F. A. (2019). Abolishment of Examination, to Focus on Potential Students Diversity. New Straits Times. Retrieved from:

Mujiburrahman, M., Kartiani, B. S., & Parhanuddin, L. (2023). Asesmen Pembelajaran Sekolah Dasar dalam Kurikulum Merdeka [Assessment of Primary School Learning in the Merdeka Curriculum]. Pena Anda: Jurnal Pendidikan Sekolah Dasar, 1(1), 39-48.

Nabilah, N., Karma, I. N., & Husniati, H. (2021) Identifying Teacher Difficulties in Carrying Out Authentic Assessments in the 2013 Curriculum at SDN 50 Cakranegara. Educational Professional Scientific Journal, 6(4), 617–622.

Narinasamy, I., & Nordin, N. A. (2018). Implementing Classroom Assessment in Malaysia: An Investigation. Jurnal Kurikulum, 3, 55-63.

Nurhayati, A. (2016). Prinsip dan tujuan penilaian tindakan kelas [Principles and objectives of classroom action assessment]. Jurnal Inspiratif Pendidikan, 5(1), 1-15.

Oli, G., & Olkaba, T. (2020). Practices and challenges of continuous assessment in colleges of teachers education in west Oromia region of Ethiopia. Journal of Education, Teaching and Learning, 5(1), 8-20.

Othman, I. (2016). Education system in Malaysia and Indonesia for human resource development. European Journal of Social Science Education and Research, 3(3), 117-124.

Pink, C. (2020). Issues and Challenges in Implementing School-Based Assessment: A Comparative Study between Singapore and Malaysia. Retrieved from:

Puspitaningtyas, I., Imron, A., & Maisyaroh, M. (2020). School Principals' Efforts to Improve Teacher Learning in the Era of Industrial Revolution 4.0. Journal of Educational Management and Supervision, 4(3), 165–172.

Rosli, R., Mokhsein, S. E., & Suppian, Z. (2022). Classroom Assessment Practices in Malaysian Primary Schools: A Meta-Analysis. Development, 11(1), 97-111.

Sadat, F. A., Maryati, D. S., Maesyaroh, A., Nashifah, I., Arifin, I., & Maulani, R. (2022). Penilaian dalam Kurikulum 2013 dan Kurikulum Merdeka [Assessment in the 2013 Curriculum and Merdeka Curriculum]. Jurnal Ilmiah ATSAR Kuningan, 2(1), 45-51.

Salam, R. (2021). The Importance Performance Assessment And Its Impact On Improving Performance Of Public Service Organizations In South Tangerang City. Sosiohumaniora, 23(2), 226-233.

Salma, N., & Prastikawati, E. F. (2021). Performance-based assessment in the English learning process: Washback and barriers. Getsempena English Education Journal, 8(1), 164-176.

Santoso, G., Damayanti, A., Imawati, S., & Asbari, M. (2023). Implementasi Kurikulum Merdeka melalui Literasi Proyek Penguatan Profil Pelajar Pancasila [Implementation of Merdeka Curriculum through Literacy Project Strengthening Pancasila Student Profile]. Jurnal Pendidikan Transformatif, 2(1), 84-90.

Sari, F. B., Amini, R., & Mudjiran, M. (2020). Lembar Kerja Peserta Didik Berbasis Model Integrated di Sekolah Dasar [Learner Worksheets Based on Integrated Model in Primary School]. Jurnal Basicedu, 4(4), 1194-1200.

Shepard, L. A. (2019). Classroom Assessment to Support Teaching and Learning. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 683(1), 183–200.

Stillman, S. B., Stillman, P., Martinez, L., Freedman, J., Jensen, A. L., & Leet, C. (2018). Strengthening social emotional learning with student, teacher, and schoolwide assessments. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 55, 71-92.

Sujarweni, V. W. (2014). Research methods: Complete, practical, and easy to understand. New Press Library.

Susilo, J., & Sihite, M. (2022). Analisis Implementasi Kurikulum Merdeka Belajar Dalam Mengembangkan Karakter Pancasila Di SMPN 5 Satu Atap Kerajaan Pardomuan [Analysis of the Implementation of Merdeka Belajar Curriculum in Developing Pancasila Character at SMPN 5 One Roof Pardomuan Kingdom]. Jurnal Penelitian, Pendidikan dan Pengajaran: JPPP, 3(3), 266-276.

Yakob, M., Hamdani, H., Sari, R. P., Haji, A. G., & Nahadi, N. (2021). Implementation of Performance Assessment in STEM-Based Science Learning to Improve Students' Habits of Mind. International Journal of Evaluation and Research in Education, 10(2), 624-631.

Yin, X., & Buck, G. A. (2015). There is another choice: an exploration of integrating formative assessment in a Chinese high school chemistry classroom through collaborative action research. Cultural Studies of Science Education, 10(3), 719–752.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2023 Mimbar Sekolah Dasar

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

View Mimbar Sekolah Dasar Stats