Elementary School Students' Effectiveness towards Improving Mathematics Learning Outcomes in Additional Material

Loso Judijanto, Tugimin Supriyadi, Jitu Halomoan Lumbantoruan, Jeranah Jeranah


The low results of learning mathematics from year to year give rise to suggestions for students that mathematics is a difficult lesson. This needs to be researched to find out the relationship between mathematics learning attitudes, anxiety, habits, and additional mathematics learning outcomes. Quantitative research method with a survey approach. The subjects were 251 random sampling people. Data collection techniques using instruments adapted from Mathematics Learning Orientation which include attitudes, attention, and mathematics learning habits totaling 51 items. Analysis techniques using correlation and regression with SPSS software version 26.0. The findings show that attitudes, habits, and anxiety are positively and significantly related to mathematics learning. Mathematics learning anxiety has a moderate relationship, while mathematics learning attitudes and habits have a weak relationship to additional mathematics learning achievement. Another finding is that the relationship between anxiety about studying mathematics is the main predictor of additional material, compared to attitudes and habits about studying mathematics. The conclusion is that mathematics learning orientation is one of the factors that plays a very important role in determining the level of student achievement in mathematics. The contribution provides information that students who have a positive attitude in learning mathematics show good study habits, therefore the teacher's role is needed to build a positive attitude.


Attitude; Doubt; Habit; Learn Mathematics

Full Text:



Álvarez, J. A. M., Arnold, E. G., Burroughs, E. A., Fulton, E. W., & Kercher, A. (2020). The design of tasks that address applications to teaching secondary mathematics for use in undergraduate mathematics courses. Journal of Mathematical Behavior, 60(August 2020), 1-18. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmathb.2020.100814

Ayanwale, M. A., Sanusi, I. T., Adelana, O. P., Aruleba, K. D., & Oyelere, S. S. (2022). Teachers’ readiness and intention to teach artificial intelligence in schools. Computers and Education: Artificial Intelligence, 3(June), 100099.1-11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.caeai.2022.100099

Baas, J., Schotten, M., Plume, A., Côté, G., & Karimi, R. (2020). Scopus as a curated, high-quality bibliometric data source for academic research in quantitative science studies. Quantitative Science Studies, 1(1), 377–386. https://doi.org/10.1162/qss_a_00019

Behnamnia, N., Kamsin, A., Ismail, M. A. B., & Hayati, A. (2020). The effective components of creativity in digital game-based learning among young children: A case study. Children and Youth Services Review, 116(March 2020), 105227.1-13. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2020.105227

Blaabæk, E. H. (2020). Reading when the sun does not shine: The effect of reading on children’s academic performance. Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, 67(December 2019), 100485.1-11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rssm.2020.100485

Büchele, S. (2020). Bridging the gap – How effective are remedial math courses in Germany? Studies in Educational Evaluation, 64(October 2019), 100832.1-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stueduc.2019.100832

Burić, I., & Kim, L. E. (2020). Teacher self-efficacy, instructional quality, and student motivational beliefs: An analysis using multilevel structural equation modeling. Learning and Instruction, 66(December 2019), 101302.1-12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.learninstruc.2019.101302

Ching, B. H. H., Kong, K. H. C., Wu, H. X., & Chen, T. T. (2020). Examining the reciprocal relations of mathematics anxiety to quantitative reasoning and number knowledge in Chinese children. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 63(September), 101919.1-14. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2020.101919

Datzberger, S. (2018). Why education is not helping the poor. Findings from Uganda. World Development, 110(2018), 124–139. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2018.05.022

Elfadil, N., & Ibrahim, I. (2022). Embedded System Design Student’s Learning Readiness Instruments: Systematic Literature Review. Frontiers in Education, 7(February), 1–15. https://doi.org/10.3389/feduc.2022.799683

Habók, A., Magyar, A., Németh, M. B., & Csapó, B. (2020). Motivation and self-related beliefs as predictors of academic achievement in reading and mathematics: Structural equation models of longitudinal data. International Journal of Educational Research, 103(June 2020), 101634.1-12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijer.2020.101634

Hidayati, Y. M., Ngalim, A., Sutama, Arifin, Z., Abidin, Z., & Rahmawati, E. (2020). Level of combinatorial thinking in solving mathematical problems. Journal for the Education of Gifted Young Scientists, 8(3), 1231–1243. https://doi.org/10.17478/JEGYS.751038

Hill, R. M., Boto, E., Rea, M., Holmes, N., Leggett, J., Coles, L. A., Papastavrou, M., Everton, S. K., Hunt, B. A. E., Sims, D., Osborne, J., Shah, V., Bowtell, R., & Brookes, M. J. (2020). Multi-channel whole-head OPM-MEG: Helmet design and a comparison with a conventional system. NeuroImage, 219(May), 116995.1-20. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2020.116995

Hillmayr, D., Ziernwald, L., Reinhold, F., Hofer, S. I., & Reiss, K. M. (2020). The potential of digital tools to enhance mathematics and science learning in secondary schools: A context-specific meta-analysis. Computers and Education, 153(April), 103897.1-25. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2020.103897

Hwang, G. J., Sung, H. Y., Chang, S. C., & Huang, X. C. (2020). A fuzzy expert system-based adaptive learning approach to improving students’ learning performances by considering affective and cognitive factors. Computers and Education: Artificial Intelligence, 1(August 2020), 100003.1-15. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.caeai.2020.100003

Hwang, G. J., Wang, S. Y., & Lai, C. L. (2021). Effects of a social regulation-based online learning framework on students’ learning achievements and behaviors in mathematics. Computers and Education, 160(1), 104031.1-5. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2020.104031

Ibáñez, M. B., Uriarte Portillo, A., Zatarain Cabada, R., & Barrón, M. L. (2020). Impact of augmented reality technology on academic achievement and motivation of students from public and private Mexican schools. A case study in a middle-school geometry course. Computers and Education, 145(February 2020), 103734.1-20. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2019.103734

Ivorra, B., Ferrández, M. R., Vela-Pérez, M., & Ramos, A. M. (2020). Mathematical modeling of the spread of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) taking into account the undetected infections. The case of China. Communications in Nonlinear Science and Numerical Simulation, 88(September 2020), 105303.1-21. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cnsns.2020.105303

Jowsey, T., Foster, G., Cooper-Ioelu, P., & Jacobs, S. (2020). Blended learning via distance in pre-registration nursing education: A scoping review. Nurse Education in Practice, 44(January 2020), 102775.1-10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nepr.2020.102775

Kanat-Maymon, Y., Elimelech, M., & Roth, G. (2020). Work motivations as antecedents and outcomes of leadership: Integrating self-determination theory and the full range leadership theory. European Management Journal, 38(4), 555–564. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.emj.2020.01.003

Kaskens, J., Segers, E., Goei, S. L., van Luit, J. E. H., & Verhoeven, L. (2020). Impact of Children’s math self-concept, math self-efficacy, math anxiety, and teacher competencies on math development. Teaching and Teacher Education, 94(August 2020), 103096.1-14. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2020.103096

Kudinov, S. I., Kudinov, S. S., Mikhailova, O., Kudinov, V. S., & Imomberdieva, N. M. (2020). Different self-attitude indicators in students and their self-realization in a university. International Journal of Cognitive Research in Science, Engineering and Education, 8(3), 47–59. https://doi.org/10.23947/2334-8496-2020-8-3-47-59

Lindsay, E., & Evans, T. (2022). The use of lecture capture in university mathematics education: a systematic review of the research literature. Mathematics Education Research Journal, 34(4), 911–931. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13394-021-00369-8

Lumbantoruan, J. H., & Male, H. (2022). Impact of Unprepared Competence and Difficulty in Competence of Mathematics Teachers During Online Learning. JTAM (Jurnal Teori Dan Aplikasi Matematika), 6(4), 876–892. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.31764/jtam.v6i4.9164

Lumbantoruan, J. H., & Manalu, R. U. (2024). Effectiveness of learning mathematics derivative materials using modules equipped with cooperative models in high schools. International Journal of Evaluation and Research in Education , 13(1), 523–533. https://doi.org/10.11591/ijere.v13i1.25354

Maamin, M., Maat, S. M., & Ikhsan, Z. (2020). A systematic review of teacher factors and mathematics achievement. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 8(3), 998–1006. https://doi.org/10.13189/ujer.2020.080334

Maamin, M., Maat, S. M., & Iksan, Z. H. (2021). Analysis of the factors that influence mathematics achievement in the ASEAN countries. Cypriot Journal of Educational Sciences, 16(1), 371–389. https://doi.org/10.18844/cjes.v16i1.5535

Maloney, E. A., & Retanal, F. (2020). Higher math anxious people have a lower need for cognition and are less reflective in their thinking. Acta Psychologica, 202(August 2019), 102939.1-6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actpsy.2019.102939

Mishra, S. (2020). Social networks, social capital, social support and academic success in higher education: A systematic review with a special focus on ‘underrepresented’ students. Educational Research Review, 29(June 2018), 100307.1-24. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.edurev.2019.100307

Mohamed, R., Ghazali, M., & Samsudin, M. A. (2020). A Systematic Review on Mathematical Language Learning Using PRISMA in Scopus Database. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 16(8), 1-12. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.29333/ejmste/8300

Okagbue, H. I., Oguntunde, P. E., Obasi, E. C. M., & Akhmetshin, E. M. (2021). Trends and usage pattern of SPSS and Minitab Software in Scientific research. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1734(1), 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/1734/1/012017

Ömeroğulları, M., Guill, K., & Köller, O. (2020). Effectiveness of private tutoring during secondary schooling in Germany: Do the duration of private tutoring and tutor qualification affect school achievement? Learning and Instruction, 66(January 2020), 101306.1-23. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.learninstruc.2020.101306

Papadopoulos, D. (2020). Psychological framework for gifted children’s cognitive and socio-emotional development: A review of the research literature and implications. Journal for the Education of Gifted Young Scientists, 8(1), 305–323. https://doi.org/10.17478/jegys.666308

Patricia Aguilera-Hermida, A. (2020). College students’ use and acceptance of emergency online learning due to COVID-19. International Journal of Educational Research Open, 1(July), 100011.1-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijedro.2020.100011

Primi, C., Bacherini, A., Beccari, C., & Donati, M. A. (2020). Assessing math attitude through the Attitude Toward Mathematics Inventory – Short form in introductory statistics course students. Studies in Educational Evaluation, 64(January 2020), 100838.1-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stueduc.2020.100838

Radianti, J., Majchrzak, T. A., Fromm, J., & Wohlgenannt, I. (2020). A systematic review of immersive virtual reality applications for higher education: Design elements, lessons learned, and research agenda. Computers and Education, 147(December 2019), 103778.1-29. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2019.103778

Robinson, E., Jones, A., Lesser, I., & Daly, M. (2021). International estimates of intended uptake and refusal of COVID-19 vaccines: A rapid systematic review and meta-analysis of large nationally representative samples. Vaccine, 39(15), 2024–2034. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2021.02.005

Rossiter, J. A., Cassandras, C. G., Hespanha, J., Dormido, S., de la Torre, L., Ranade, G., Visioli, A., Hedengren, J., Murray, R. M., Antsaklis, P., Lamnabhi-Lagarrigue, F., & Parisini, T. (2023). Control education for societal-scale challenges: A community roadmap. Annual Reviews in Control, 55(September 2022), 1–17. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arcontrol.2023.03.007

Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2020). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation from a self-determination theory perspective: Definitions, theory, practices, and future directions. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 61(April 2020), 101860.1-11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2020.101860

Sahin, D., & Yilmaz, R. M. (2020). The effect of Augmented Reality Technology on middle school students’ achievements and attitudes towards science education. Computers and Education, 144(January 2020), 103710.1-24. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2019.103710

Staddon, R. V. (2022). A supported flipped learning model for mathematics gives safety nets for online and blended learning. Computers and Education Open, 3(September 2022.), 100106.1-11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.caeo.2022.100106

Sugiman, Rizkianto, I., & Pujiasti, E. (2020). Artistically talented students’ perceptions of mathematics: View, interest, competence, and relevance. Journal for the Education of Gifted Young Scientists, 8(3), 1245–1259. https://doi.org/10.17478/JEGYS.762677

Thomson, M. M., Walkowiak, T. A., Whitehead, A. N., & Huggins, E. (2020). Mathematics teaching efficacy and developmental trajectories: A mixed-methods investigation of novice K-5 teachers. Teaching and Teacher Education, 87(January 2020), 102953. 1-14. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2019.102953

Ulia, N., & Kusmaryono, I. (2021). Mathematical disposition of students’, teachers, and parents in distance learning: A survey. Premiere Educandum : Jurnal Pendidikan Dasar Dan Pembelajaran, 11(1), 1-13. https://doi.org/10.25273/pe.v11i1.8869

Veas, A., Castejón, J.-L., Miñano, P., & Gilar-Corbí, R. (2019). Early Adolescents’ Attitudes and Academic Achievement: The Mediating Role of Academic Self-concept. Revista de Psicodidáctica (English Ed.), 24(1), 71–77. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psicoe.2018.11.002

Velazco, D. J. M., Hinostroza, E. M. F., Moreno, J. E. S., Cerda, J. F. P., & Barros, M. V. S. (2022). Attitudes of Ecuadorian Secondary School Teaching Staff towards Online STEM Development in 2022. International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research, 21(7), 59–81. https://doi.org/10.26803/ijlter.21.7.4

Vidergor, H. E., & Ben-Amram, P. (2020). Khan academy effectiveness: The case of math secondary students’ perceptions. Computers and Education, 157(July), 103985.1-12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2020.103985

Wang, Z., Oh, W., Malanchini, M., & Borriello, G. A. (2020). The developmental trajectories of mathematics anxiety: Cognitive, personality, and environmental correlates. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 61(May), 101876.1-14. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2020.101876

Xie, C., Cheung, A. C. K., Lau, W. W. F., & Slavin, R. E. (2020). The Effects of Computer-Assisted Instruction on Mathematics Achievement in Mainland China: A Meta-Analysis. International Journal of Educational Research, 102(July 2019), 1-15. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijer.2020.101565

Yin, H., Shi, L., Tam, W. W. Y., & Lu, G. (2020). Linking university mathematics classroom environments to student achievement: The mediation of mathematics beliefs. Studies in Educational Evaluation, 66(December 2019), 100905.1-10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stueduc.2020.100905

Zanden, P. J. A. C. Van Der, Meijer, P. C., & Beghetto, R. A. (2020). A review study about creativity in adolescence : Where is the social context ? Thinking Skills and Creativity, 38(July), 100702.1-18. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tsc.2020.100702

Zhang, D., & Wang, C. (2020). The relationship between mathematics interest and mathematics achievement: mediating roles of self-efficacy and mathematics anxiety. International Journal of Educational Research, 104(July 2020), 101648.1-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijer.2020.101648

Zhou, S., Zhou, W., & Traynor, A. (2020). Parent and teacher homework involvement and their associations with students’ homework disaffection and mathematics achievement. Learning and Individual Differences, 77(September 2019), 101780.1-10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2019.101780

Zhu, J., & Liu, W. (2020). A tale of two databases: the use of Web of Science and Scopus in academic papers. Scientometrics, 123(1), 321–335. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11192-020-03387-8

Zynuddin, S. N., Kenayathulla, H. B., & Sumintono, B. (2023). The relationship between school climate and students’ non-cognitive skills: A systematic literature review. Heliyon, 9(4), e14773.1-25. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2023.e14773

DOI: https://doi.org/10.53400/mimbar-sd.v10i3.65455


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2023 Mimbar Sekolah Dasar

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

View Mimbar Sekolah Dasar Stats