Differences of 2.2% and 2.8% Dehydration Effects on 400 Meter Running Performance

Isti Dwi Puspita Wati


Dehydration is a case that will happen when exercising. The allowed dehydration level for a single exercise for health is still uncertain. Based on a review of research, dehydration up to 2% can lower mood but has not decreased aerobic performance. Information on the allowed level of dehydration to maintain exercise and performance still needs to be done. The research method used was an experimental pre-test post-test method. This study compared 2.2% and 2.8% dehydration levels on 400 meters running performance. The population of this study was all Sports Coaching Education students class of 2017 and 2018. The sample grouping was administered randomly into two groups. The first group was the 2.2% dehydration group consisted of 16 students. The second group was the 2.8% dehydration group consisted of 25 students. The dehydration process was conducted passively by doing sunbathing while using a raincoat. Bodyweight was measured before dehydration up to several times to reach the desired level of dehydration. The measurement of the 400-meter run was carried out before weight measurement and after dehydration. The data were analyzed by Mann-Whitney U test. The results of the data analysis concluded that there was no difference in the 400-meter run performance at the two levels of dehydration. Dehydration between 2.2% level and 2.8% level equally lowered the 400-meter running performance. This study suggests that the athlete's hydration level when exercising should be kept below 2.2% to achieve optimal performance. During training, athletes should be provided with drinks to maintain hydration levels.


dehydration, exercise, 400 meters sprinting

Full Text:



Adams, J. D., Sekiguchi, Y., Suh, H. G., Seal, A. D., Sprong, C. A., Kirkland, T. W., & Kavouras, S. A. (2018). Dehydration impairs cycling performance, independently of thirst: A blinded study. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000001597

Backes, T. P., & Fitzgerald, K. (2016). Fluid consumption, exercise, and cognitive performance. Biology of Sport. https://doi.org/10.5604/20831862.1208485

Benton, D., & Young, H. A. (2015). Do small differences in hydration status affect mood and mental performance? Nutrition Reviews. https://doi.org/10.1093/nutrit/nuv045

Carlton, A., & Orr, R. M. (2015). The effects of fluid loss on physical performance: A critical review. In Journal of Sport and Health Science. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jshs.2014.09.004

Casa, D. J., Cheuvront, S. N., Galloway, S. D., & Shirreffs, S. M. (2019). Fluid needs for training, competition, and recovery in track-and-field athletes. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijsnem.2018-0374

Cengiz, A. (2015). Effects of self-selected dehydration and meaningful rehydration on anaerobic power and heart rate recovery of elite wrestlers. Journal of Physical Therapy Science, 27(5)(Issue 5), 1441–1444. https://doi.org/10.1589/jpts.27.1441

Cousins, A. L., Young, H. A., Thomas, A. G., & Benton, D. (2019). The effect of hypo-hydration on mood and cognition is influenced by electrolyte in a drink and its colour: A randomised trial. Nutrients, 11(9), 2002. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11092002

David Benton, Alecia Cousins, H. Y. (2019). Small Differences in Everyday Hydration Status Influence Mood (P04-134-19). Current Develompment in Nutrition, 3(1), 134–19. https://doi.org/doi.org/10.1093/cdn/nzz051.P04-134-19

Davis, J. K., Baker, L. B., Barnes, K., Ungaro, C., & Stofan, J. (2016). Thermoregulation, Fluid Balance, and Sweat Losses in American Football Players. In Sports Medicine. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-016-0527-8

Fortes, L. S., Nascimento-Júnior, J. R. A., Mortatti, A. L., Lima-Júnior, D. R. A. A. de, & Ferreira, M. E. C. (2018). Effect of Dehydration on Passing Decision Making in Soccer Athletes. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport. https://doi.org/10.1080/02701367.2018.1488026

Fortes, M. B., Owen, J. A., Raymond-Barker, P., Bishop, C., Elghenzai, S., Oliver, S. J., & Walsh, N. P. (2015). Is this elderly patient dehydrated? Diagnostic accuracy of hydration assessment using physical signs, Urine, and saliva markers. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, 16(3), 221–228. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jamda.2014.09.012

Gandy, J. (2015). Water intake: validity of population assessment and recommendations. European Journal of Nutrition, 54((Suppl 2):), 11–16. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00394-015-0944-8

Hao, L., Chen, Q., Lu, J., Li, Z., Guo, C., Qian, P., Yu, J., & Xing, X. (2014). A novel hypotonic sports drink containing a high molecular weight polysaccharide. Food and Function. https://doi.org/10.1039/c3fo60692a

Hillyer, M., Menon, K., & Singh, R. (2015). The Effects of Dehydration on Skill-Based Performance. International Journal of Sports Science.

Hosick, P. A., Sheris, A., Alencewicz, J. S., & Matthews, E. L. (2020). Mild dehydration following voluntary water intake reduction does not affect anaerobic power performance. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 60(3), 361–366. https://doi.org/10.23736/S0022-4707.19.10166-1

Hoxha, T., Xhelili, L., Azemi, M., Avdiu, M., Ismaili-Jaha, V., Efendija-Beqa, U., & Grajcevci-Uka, V. (2015). Performance of clinical signs in the diagnosis of dehydration in children with acute gastroenteritis. Medical Archives (Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina). https://doi.org/10.5455/medarh.2015.69.10-12

Irwin, C., Campagnolo, N., Iudakhina, E., Cox, G. R., & Desbrow, B. (2018). Effects of acute exercise, dehydration and rehydration on cognitive function in well-trained athletes. Journal of Sports Sciences, 36(3), 247–255. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2017.1298828

J, Okonkwo, C. O., V.N., O., & P, M. (2018). The Effect of Homemade Drink on Exercise Endrance Time in Young Adult Females. International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development, 2(3), 27–35. https://doi.org/10.31142/ijtsrd10757

Karninčič, H., Baić, M., & Slačanac, K. (2016). Mood aspects of rapid weight loss in adolescent wrestlers. Kinesiology. https://doi.org/10.26582/k.48.2.7

Kasper, A. M., Crighton, B., Langan-Evans, C., Riley, P., Sharma, A., Close, G. L., & Morton, J. P. (2019). Case study: Extreme weight making causes relative energy deficiency, dehydration, and acute kidney injury in a Male mixed martial arts athlete. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 29(3), 331–338. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijsnem.2018-0029

Logan-Sprenger, H. M., Heigenhauser, G. J. F., Jones, G. L., & Spriet, L. L. (2015). The effect of dehydration on muscle metabolism and time trial performance during prolonged cycling in males. Physiological Reports, 3((8)), :e12483. https://doi.org/10.14814/phy2.12483

Matthews, J. J., & Nicholas, C. (2017). Extreme rapid weight loss and rapid weight gain observed in UK mixed martial arts athletes preparing for competition. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 27((2)), 122–129. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijsnem.2016-0174

McCartney, D., Desbrow, B., & Irwin, C. (2017). The Effect of Fluid Intake Following Dehydration on Subsequent Athletic and Cognitive Performance: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. In Sports Medicine - Open. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40798-017-0079-y

McDermott, B. P., Casa, D. J., Yeargin, S. W., Ganio, M. S., Lopez, R. M., Mooradian, E. a, Ubiratan, F., Edmonds, C. J., Crombie, R., Ballieux, H., Gardner, M. R., Dawkins, L., Masento, N. a, Golightly, M., Field, D. T., Butler, L. T., van Reekum, C. M., Sawka, Michael; Burke, Louise M.; Eichne, Randyr; Maughan, Ronald J.; Montain, Scott J.; Stachenfeld, N., Brink-Elfegoun, T., … Gait, H. (2015). Deshidratacion Y Sobrehidratacion Voluntarias. Nutrition Reviews, 4, 22–23. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2012.10.016

Morales-Palomo, F., Ramirez-Jimenez, M., Ortega, J. F., Pallarés, J. G., & Mora-Rodriguez, R. (2017). Acute Hypotension after High-Intensity Interval Exercise in Metabolic Syndrome Patients. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 38((7)), 560–567. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0043-101911

Neal, R. A., Corbett, J., Massey, H. C., & Tipton, M. J. (2016). Effect of short-term heat acclimation with permissive dehydration on thermoregulation and temperate exercise performance. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 26((8)), 875–884. https://doi.org/10.1111/sms.12526

Orrù, S., Imperlini, E., Nigro, E., Alfieri, A., Cevenini, A., Polito, R., Daniele, A., Buono, P., & Mancini, A. (2018). Role of functional beverages on sport performance and recovery. In Nutrients. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101470

Pallarés, J. G., Martínez-Abellán, A., López-Gullón, J. M., Morán-Navarro, R., De la Cruz-Sánchez, E., & Mora-Rodríguez, R. (2016). Muscle contraction velocity, strength and power output changes following different degrees of hypohydration in competitive olympic combat sports. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. https://doi.org/10.1186/S12970-016-0121-3

Patsalos, O. C., & Thoma, V. (2019). Water supplementation after dehydration improves judgment and decision-making performance. Psychological Research, 84, 1223–1234. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00426-018-1136-y

Perry, C. S., Rapinett, G., Glaser, N. S., & Ghetti, S. (2015). Hydration status moderates the effects of drinking water on children’s cognitive performance. Appetite, 95, 520–527. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2015.08.006

Piil, J. F., Lundbye-Jensen, J., Christiansen, L., Ioannou, L., Tsoutsoubi, L., Dallas, C. N., Mantzios, K., Flouris, A. D., & Nybo, L. (2018). High prevalence of hypohydration in occupations with heat stress - Perspectives for performance in combined cognitive and motor tasks. PLoS ONE. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0205321

Racinais, S., Alonso, J. M., Coutts, A. J., Flouris, A. D., Girard, O., González-Alonso, J., Hausswirth, C., Jay, O., Lee, J. K. W., Mitchell, N., Nassis, G. P., Nybo, L., Pluim, B. M., Roelands, B., Sawka, M. N., Wingo, J., & Périard, J. D. (2015). Consensus recommendations on training and competing in the heat. British Journal of Sports Medicine. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2015-094915

Sawka, M. N., Cheuvront, S. N., & Kenefick, R. W. (2015). Hypohydration and Human Performance: Impact of Environment and Physiological Mechanisms. Sports Medicine, 45, 51–60. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-015-0395-7

Toomey, C. M., McCormack, W. G., & Jakeman, P. (2017). The effect of hydration status on the measurement of lean tissue mass by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. European Journal of Applied Physiology. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-017-3552-x

Trangmar, S. J., Chiesa, S. T., Llodio, I., Garcia, B., Kalsi, K. K., Secher, N. H., & González-Alonso, J. (2015). Dehydration accelerates reductions in cerebral blood flow during prolonged exercise in the heat without compromising brain metabolism. American Journal of Physiology - Heart and Circulatory Physiology, 309(9), H1598–H1607. https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.00525.2015

Trangmar, S. J., & González-Alonso, J. (2017). New insights into the impact of dehydration on blood flow and metabolism during exercise. Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews, 45(3), 146–153. https://doi.org/10.1249/JES.0000000000000109

Trangmar, S. J., & González-Alonso, J. (2019). Heat, Hydration and the Human Brain, Heart and Skeletal Muscles. Sports Medicine, 49((Suppl 1)), 69–85. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-018-1033-y

van den Heuvel, A. M. J., Haberley, B. J., Hoyle, D. J. R., Taylor, N. A. S., & Croft, R. J. (2017). The independent influences of heat strain and dehydration upon cognition. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 117, 1025–1037. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-017-3592-2

Wittbrodt, M. T., & Millard-Stafford, M. (2018). Dehydration Impairs Cognitive Performance: A Meta-analysis. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000001682

Young, H. A., & Benton, D. (2017). The use of moderated mediated analysis to study the influence of hypo-hydration on working memory. Nutricion Hospitalaria, .33(3), 71–75. https://doi.org/10.20960/nh.320

DOI: https://doi.org/10.17509/jpjo.v6i2.31040


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 Isti Dwi Puspita Wati

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.


View My Stats