The Integration of Games and Physical Activities to Stimulate Cognitive Abilities of Elementary School Students

Uray Gustian, Touvan Juni Samodra, Rio Pranata


This study aimed to examine the learning process by combining physical activities and games to stimulate the cognitive ability of elementary school students. The experiment was carried out using the One-Group Post-test Design. The trials involved letters games, guessing pictures, guessing names, counting kangaroos, snakes and ladders, and number adventure. The trial was carried out four times for each game for 60 minutes. The study involved 154 elementary school students, 86 boys and 66 girls. The sampling technique used the saturated sampling technique. The data collection process employed observation techniques with an assessment rubric instrument analyzed by different mean tests. The results showed that there had been an increase in the mean between the first meeting and the fourth meeting. Furthermore, the result of the t-count was greater than the t-table, and the increase was significant. In conclusion, integrative learning of physical activity combined with various forms of games effectively stimulates the cognitive aspect of elementary school students.


Cognitive Abilities, Integration of Games and Physical Activities

Full Text:



Aryamanesh, S., & Sayyah, M. (2014). Effect of some selected games on the develop-ment of locomotor skills in 4-6 year-old preschool boys. International Journal of Sport Studies, 4(6), 648–652.

Butler, J., & Griffin, L. (2010). More teaching games for understanding: Moving globally. Human Kinetics.

Fedewa, A. L., & Ahn, S. (2011). The effects of physical activity and physical fitness on children’s achievement and cognitive outcomes: a meta-analysis. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 82(3), 521–535.

Gelisli, Y., & Yazici, E. (2015). A study into traditional child games played in Konya region in terms of development fields of children. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 197, 1859–1865.

Goodway, J. D., Ozmun, J. C., & Gallahue, D. L. (2019). Understanding motor development: Infants, children, adolescents, adults. Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Grunbaum, J. A., Kann, L., Kinchen, S., Ross, J., Hawkins, J., Lowry, R., Harris, W. A., McManus, T., Chyen, D., & Collins, J. (2004). Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance--United States, 2003. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries. Volume 53, Number SS-2. US Department of Health and Human Services.

Gustian, U. (2021). Effectiveness of Traditional Games in Stimulating Elementary School Student Motor Skill Development. Jurnal Pendidikan Jasmani Dan Olahraga, 6(1), 75–80.

Gustian, U., & Tomoliyus. (2015). Pengembangan Model Pembelajaran Integratif Berbasis Aktivitas Jasmani untuk Anak Taman Kanak-Kanak. Jurnal Ilmu Keolahragaan, 3(September), 241–251.

Haapala, E. A. (2013). Cardiorespiratory fitness and motor skills in relation to cognition and academic performance in children–a review. Journal of Human Kinetics, 36(1), 55–68.

Haga, M. (2008). The relationship between physical fitness and motor competence in children. Child: Care, Health and Development, 34(3), 329–334.

Have, M., Nielsen, J. H., Ernst, M. T., Gejl, A. K., Fredens, K., Grøntved, A., & Kristensen, P. L. (2018). Classroom-based physical activity improves children’s math achievement–A randomized controlled trial. PloS One, 13(12), 1–14.

Kirk, M. A., & Rhodes, R. E. (2011). Motor skill interventions to improve fundamental movement skills of preschoolers with developmental delay. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 28(3), 210–232.

Kirk, S. M., Vizcarra, C. R., Looney, E. C., & Kirk, E. P. (2014). Using physical activity to teach academic content: a study of the effects on literacy in head start preschoolers. Early Childhood Education Journal, 42(3), 181–189.

Kuh, D., Hardy, R., Butterworth, S., Okell, L., Richards, M., Wadsworth, M., Cooper, C., & Sayer, A. A. (2006). Developmental Origins of Midlife Physical Performance: Evidence from a British Birth Cohort. American Journal of Epidemiology, 164(2), 110–121.

Liu, M., Karp, G. G., & Davis, D. (2010). Teaching learning–related social skills in kindergarten physical education. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 81(6), 38–44.

Logan, S. W., Scrabis-Fletcher, K., Modlesky, C., & Getchell, N. (2011). The relationship between motor skill proficiency and body mass index in preschool children. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 82(3), 442–448.

Marques, A., Santos, D. A., Hillman, C. H., & Sardinha, L. B. (2018). How does academic achievement relate to cardiorespiratory fitness, self-reported physical activity and objectively reported physical activity: a systematic review in children and adolescents aged 6–18 years. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 52(16), 1039 LP – 1039.

Mavilidi, M., Okely, A. D., Chandler, P., & Paas, F. (2016). Infusing physical activities into the classroom: effects on preschool children’s geography learning. Mind, Brain, and Education, 10(4), 256–263.

Mavilidi, M., Okely, A. D., Chandler, P., & Paas, F. (2017). Effects of integrating physical activities into a science lesson on preschool children’s learning and enjoyment. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 31(3), 281–290.

Mullender-Wijnsma, M. J., Hartman, E., de Greeff, J. W., Doolaard, S., Bosker, R. J., & Visscher, C. (2016). Physically active math and language lessons improve academic achievement: a cluster randomized controlled trial. Pediatrics, 137(3), 1–9.

Murray, G. K., Veijola, J., Moilanen, K., Miettunen, J., Glahn, D. C., Cannon, T. D., Jones, P. B., & Isohanni, M. (2006). Infant motor development is associated with adult cognitive categorisation in a longitudinal birth cohort study. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47(1), 25–29.

Payne, V. G., & Isaacs, L. D. (2017). Human motor development: A lifespan approach. Routledge.

Robinson, L. E., Stodden, D. F., Barnett, L. M., Lopes, V. P., Logan, S. W., Rodrigues, L. P., & D’Hondt, E. (2015). Motor competence and its effect on positive developmental trajectories of health. Sports Medicine, 45(9), 1273–1284.

Roebers, C. M., & Kauer, M. (2009). Motor and cognitive control in a normative sample of 7‐year‐olds. Developmental Science, 12(1), 175–181.

Taylor, R. W., Williams, S. M., Farmer, V. L., & Taylor, B. J. (2013). Changes in physical activity over time in young children: a longitudinal study using accelerometers. PLoS One, 8(11), e81567.

Webster, C. A., Russ, L., Vazou, S., Goh, T. L., & Erwin, H. (2015). Integrating movement in academic classrooms: understanding, applying and advancing the knowledge base. Obesity Reviews, 16(8), 691–701.

Westendorp, M., Hartman, E., Houwen, S., Smith, J., & Visscher, C. (2011). The relationship between gross motor skills and academic achievement in children with learning disabilities. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 32(6), 2773–2779.

Williams, H. G., Pfeiffer, K. A., O’neill, J. R., Dowda, M., McIver, K. L., Brown, W. H., & Pate, R. R. (2008). Motor skill performance and physical activity in preschool children. Obesity, 16(6), 1421–1426.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 Uray Gustian, Touvan Juni Samodra, Rio Pranata

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.


View My Stats