Perceived Physical Literacy of Kindergarten Teachers in Urban and Rural Areas

Gita Febria Friskawati


This study aimed to reveal physical literacy perception differences among early childhood teachers at the kindergarten level of education. The survey research was conducted on 98 kindergarten teachers in West Java who were willing to be involved in this research selected through convenience sampling by filling out an online instrument. Perceived Physical Literacy Scale for Physical Education Teachers (PPLI) was used as the instrument to collect data. The research data were calculated using SPSS 20 employing the ANOVA test. The study's results revealed that physical literacy perception differences were apparent in early childhood education teachers in urban and rural areas, especially in different age and teaching experience groups. The relatively young teachers had diverse perceptions of physical literacy. In contrast, early childhood education teachers in rural schools had the same perception of physical literacy due to the lack of information about the novelty of physical literacy. The findings revealed that the physical literacy perception among early childhood education teachers in urban and rural areas had not been evenly distributed. Therefore, promoting the importance of physical literacy integrated into the learning process, especially in early childhood education, needs to be well socialized through government policies in urban and rural areas.


early childhood education teacher, kindergartens, physical literacy perception

Full Text:



Bakhtiar, S., Famelia, R., Syahputra, R., Oktavianus, I., & Goodway, J. (2020a). Developing a Motor Skill-Based Curriculum for Preschools and Kindergartens as a Preventive Plan for Children With Obesity in Indonesia. 464(Psshers 2019), 276–280.

Bakhtiar, S., Famelia, R., Syahputra, R., Oktavianus, I., & Goodway, J. (2020b). Developing a Motor Skill-Based Curriculum for Preschools and Kindergartens as a Preventive Plan for Children With Obesity in Indonesia. 21(Icsshpe 2019), 106–110.

Berens, E. M., Vogt, D., Messer, M., Hurrelmann, K., & Schaeffer, D. (2016). Health literacy among different age groups in Germany: results of a cross-sectional survey. BMC public health, 16(1), 1-8.

Bergen, T. J. (2020). The Young Teacher in the Age of Aquarius. The Clearing House: A Journal of Educational Strategies, Issues and Ideas, 93(4), 259–262.

Breslin, G., Murphy, M., McKee, D., Delaney, B., & Dempster, M. (2012). The effect of teachers trained in a fundamental movement skills programme on children’s self-perceptions and motor competence. European Physical Education Review, 18(1), 114–126.

Buckler, E. J., & Bredin, S. S. D. (2021). Examining the knowledge base and level of confidence of early childhood educators in physical literacy and its application to practice. Early Years, 41(2–3), 202–217.

Buckler, E. J., Puterman, E., & Faulkner, G. E. (2021). Early childhood education and care: Do we need to develop the physical literacy of educators? Prospects, 50(1–2), 55–68.

Choi, S. M., Kim-Wai Sum, R., Sau-Ching Ha, A., Hui-Ping Sit, C., Wallhead, T., Shy, D. Y., & Wei, F. M. (2021). Preservice physical education teachers’ perceived physical literacy and teaching efficacy. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 40(1), 146–156.

Choi, S. M., Sum, R. K. W., Wallhead, T., Ha, A. S. C., Sit, C. H. P., Shy, D. Y., & Wei, F. M. (2020). Preservice Physical Education Teachers’ Perceived Physical Literacy and Teaching Efficacy. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 40(1), 146-156.

Coulter, M., & Woods, C. B. (2012). Primary teachers’ experience of a physical education professional development programme. Irish Educational Studies, 31(3), 329–343.

Creswell, J. W., & Creswell, J. D. (2018). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. Sage publications.

Doherty, B., Lee, J., Keller, J., & Zhang, T. (2019). Promoting school-aged children’s physical literacy in schools : A brief review. Journal of Teaching, Research, and Media in Kinesiology, May 2020, 45–49.

Dynia, J. M., Schachter, R. E., Piasta, S. B., Justice, L. M., O’Connell, A. A., & Yeager Pelatti, C. (2018). An empirical investigation of the dimensionality of the physical literacy environment in early childhood classrooms. Journal of Early Childhood Literacy, 18(2), 239–263.

Edwards, L. C., Bryant, A. S., Morgan, K., Cooper, S. M., Jones, A. M., & Keegan, R. J. (2019). A professional development program to enhance primary school teachers’ knowledge and operationalization of physical literacy. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 38(2), 126–135.

Essiet, I. A., Lander, N. J., Salmon, J., Duncan, M. J., Eyre, E. L., Ma, J., & Barnett, L. M. (2021). A systematic review of tools designed for teacher proxy-report of children’s physical literacy or constituting elements. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 18(1), 1-48.

Essiet, I. A., Warner, E., Lander, N. J., Salmon, J., Duncan, M. J., Eyre, E. L., & Barnett, L. M. (2022). Exploring Australian teachers’ perceptions of physical literacy: a mixed-methods study. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 1-20.

Goodway, J. D., Ozmun, J. C., & Gallahue, D. L. (2019). Understanding motor development: Infants, children, adolescents, adults. Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Goodway, J. D., Famelia, R., & Chen, Y. J. (2018, December). Engaging the Community in Project SKIP to Promote Early Years Physical Literacy in Indonesia. In 2nd Yogyakarta International Seminar on Health, Physical Education, and Sport Science (YISHPESS 2018) and 1st Conference on Interdisciplinary Approach in Sports (CoIS 2018) (pp. 120-125). Atlantis Press.

Hulteen, R., Morgan, P., Barnett, L., Stodden, D., & Lubans, D. (2017). The role of movement skill competency in the pursuit of physical literacy: Are fundamental movement skills the only pathway?. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 20, e77.

Hyndman, B., & Pill, S. (2018). What’s in a concept? A Leximancer text mining analysis of physical literacy across the international literature. European Physical Education Review, 24(3), 292-313.

Irmansyah, J., Susanto, E., Lumintuarso, R., Sugiyanto, F. X., & Syarif, A. (2021). Physical Literacy in the Culture of Physical Education in Elementary Schools: Indonesian Perspectives. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HUMAN, 9(5), 929-939.

Johnson, J. L., Rudisill, M. E., Hastie, P., Wadsworth, D., Strunk, K., Venezia, A., Sassi, J., Morris, M., & Merritt, M. (2019). Changes in Fundamental Motor-Skill Performance Following a Nine-Month Mastery Motivational Climate Intervention. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 90(4), 517–526.

Li, M. H., Sum, R. K. W., Sit, C. H. P., Liu, Y., & Li, R. (2021). Perceived and actual physical literacy and physical activity: A test of reverse pathway among Hong Kong children. Journal of Exercise Science and Fitness, 19(3), 171–177.

Lu, C., & Montague, B. (2016). Move to learn, learn to move: Prioritizing physical activity in early childhood education programming. Early Childhood Education Journal, 44(5), 409-417.

Lugossy, A. M., Froehlich Chow, A., & Humbert, M. L. (2021). Learn to Do by Doing and Observing: Exploring Early Childhood Educators′ Personal Behaviours as a Mechanism for Developing Physical Literacy Among Preschool Aged Children. Early Childhood Education Journal, 1-14.

Olive, L., Telford, D., Telford, R., & Westrupp, E. (2021). Physical literacy & early childhood executive function and language development: Active Early Learning randomised controlled trial. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 24, S4.

Palmer, K. K., Chinn, K. M., & Robinson, L. E. (2019). The effect of the CHAMP intervention on fundamental motor skills and outdoor physical activity in preschoolers. Journal of Sport and Health Science, 8(2), 98–105.

Permana, R., & Habibie, A. (2020). Analisis Assesmen Literasi Jasmani dengan Kebutuhan Pembelajaran PJOK di Sekolah Dasar Muhammadiyah Tasikmalaya. 221–226.

Pot, N., Whitehead, M. E., & Durden-Myers, E. J. (2018). Physical literacy from philosophy to practice. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 37(3), 246-251.

Priadana, B. W., Saifuddin, H., & Prakoso, B. B. (2021). Kelayakan pengukuran aspek pengetahuan pada instrumen physical literacy untuk siswa usia 8-12 tahun. Multilateral: Jurnal Pendidikan Jasmani dan Olahraga, 20(1), 21-32.

Pyle, A., Poliszczuk, D., & Danniels, E. (2018). The challenges of promoting literacy integration within a play-based learning kindergarten program: Teacher perspectives and implementation. Journal of research in childhood education, 32(2), 219-233.

Rempe-Gillen, E. (2018). Primary school teacher experiences in cross-phase professional development collaborations. Professional development in education, 44(3), 356-368.

Sato, T., Tsuda, E., Ellison, D., & Hodge, S. R. (2020). Japanese elementary teachers’ professional development experiences in physical education lesson studies. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 25(2), 137–153.

Scott, J. J., Hill, S., Barwood, D., & Penney, D. (2021). Physical literacy and policy alignment in sport and education in Australia. European Physical Education Review, 27(2), 328-347.

Starrett, A., Pennell, A., Irvin, M. J., Taunton Miedema, S., Howard-Smith, C., Goodway, J. D., Stodden, D. F., & Brian, A. (2021). An Examination of Motor Competence Profiles in Preschool Children: A Latent Profile Analysis. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 00(00), 1–10.

Suherman, A., Suherman, A., Juliantine, T., & Mahendra, A. (2021). Thematic Learning Based On Physical Literacy for Early Children. JUARA: Jurnal Olahraga, 6(2), 318-331.

Sum, R. K. W., Ha, A. S. C., Cheng, C. F., Chung, P. K., Yiu, K. T. C., Kuo, C. C., ... & Wang, F. J. (2016). Construction and validation of a perceived physical literacy instrument for physical education teachers. PLoS One, 11(5), e0155610.

Sum, R. K. W., Morgan, K., Ma, M. M. S., & Choi, S. M. (2021). The influence of a customized continuing professional development programme on physical education teachers’ perceived physical literacy and efficacy beliefs. Prospects, 50(1–2), 87–106.

Tannehill, D., Demirhan, G., Čaplová, P., & Avsar, Z. (2021). Continuing professional development for physical education teachers in Europe. European Physical Education Review, 27(1), 150–167.

Tonetto, L. M., Pereira, A. S., Koller, S. H., Bressane, K., & Pierozan, D. (2020). Designing Toys and Play Activities for the Development of Social Skills in Childhood. Design Journal, 23(2), 199–217.

UURI. (2022). Undang-undang Republik Indonesia Nomor 11 tahun 2022.

Veall, A. (2015). Cardiff School of Sport Dissertation Assessment Proforma: Student name: Programme: Student ID (Doctoral dissertation, Dissertation title: Supervisor: In Sport and Physical Education).

Brewer, H., & Jalongo, M. R. (2018). Physical Activity and Health Promotion in the Early Years. Cham: Springer.

Wainwright, N., Goodway, J., Whitehed, M., Williams, A., & Kirk, D. (2016). The foundation phase in Wales–A play-based curriculum that supports the development of physical literacy. Education 3-13, 44(5), 513-524.

Wainwright, N., Goodway, J., Whitehead, M., Williams, A., & Kirk, D. (2018). Laying the foundations for physical literacy in Wales: The contribution of the Foundation Phase to the development of physical literacy. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 23(4), 431-444.

Wasenius, N. S., Grattan, K. P., Harvey, A. L., Naylor, P. J., Goldfield, G. S., & Adamo, K. B. (2018). The effect of a physical activity intervention on preschoolers’ fundamental motor skills—A cluster RCT. Journal of science and medicine in sport, 21(7), 714-719.

Whitehead, M. (2010). Physical literacy, physical competence and interaction with the environment. In Physical Literacy (pp. 64-75). Routledge.

Wu, J., Lin, W., & Ni, L. (2022). Peer Interaction Patterns in Mixed-Age and Same-Age Chinese Kindergarten Classrooms: An Observation-based Analysis. Early Education and Development, 33(3), 541-553.

Yıldızer, G., & Munusturlar, S. (2022). Differences in perceived physical literacy between teachers delivering physical education in schools: classroom teachers vs physical education teachers. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 27(6), 626-639.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 Gita Febria Friskawati

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.


View My Stats