Improving the Performance and Knowledge Retention of Aircraft Maintenance Engineering Students in the Theory of Flight through STAD Cooperative Learning

Ak Umairulazmi Pg Abd Mokmin, Jabaidah Bungsu, Masitah Shahrill


This study used a mixed-method design and an action research approach to investigate the effectiveness of the Student Teams Achievement Division (STAD) in improving 11 TVET students’ performance in the theory of flight. The results of the paired sample t-test revealed that students’ performance improved and were able to retain their knowledge after the STAD intervention. The students reported positive perceptions about STAD cooperative learning after the interview analysis. It encouraged student-centered and active learning, participation, and the development of teamwork skills. The discussion and practical and collaborative activities helped the students to retain their knowledge since they formed mental images of what they learned. This study concluded that STAD cooperative learning can be a helpful tool in improving TVET students’ performance in the theory of flight. This is more achievable when it is conducted in a teacher-friendly and well-prepared classroom environment. Implications of the findings in TVET and suggestions of effective ways to implement STAD cooperative learning are discussed.


Academic performance; Aircraft maintenance engineering; STAD cooperative learning; TVET Brunei

Full Text:



Anwar, K., Shaikh, A. A., Dash, N. R., and Khurshid, S. (2012). Comparing the efficacy of team-based learning strategies in a problem-based learning curriculum. Apmis, 120(9), 718-723.

Asamoah, D., Shahrill, M., and Abdul Latif, S. (2022). A review of formative assessment techniques in higher education during COVID-19. The Qualitative Report, 27(2), 475-487.

Asamoah, D., Sundeme, B., Adusei, A., Occansey, M. K. K., and Ntim, W. N. (2019). Ensuring content representativeness: Perceptions of senior high school teachers in Ghana. International Journal of Educational Technology and Learning, 6(1), 2523-0581.

Avison, D. E., Lau, F., Myers, M. D., and Nielsen, P. A. (1999). Action research. Communications of the ACM, 42(1), 94-97.

Chan, L. L., and Idris, N. (2017). Cooperative learning in mathematics education. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 7(3), 540-553.

Coman, E., Picho, K., McArdle, J., Villagra, V., Dierker, L., and Iordache, E. (2013). The paired t-test as a simple latent change score model [Opinion]. Frontiers in Psychology, 4, 738.

Creswell, J. W., and Creswell, J. D. (2017). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. Sage Publications, 8(2011), 107-121.

Duraman, H. S. A. H., Shahrill, M., and Morsidi, N. M. H. (2015). Investigating the effectiveness of collaborative learning in using the snowballing effect technique. Asian Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities, 4(1), 148-155.

Ebil, S., Salleh, S. M., and Shahrill, M. (2020). The use of e-portfolio for self-reflection to promote learning: A case of TVET students. Education and Information Technologies, 25(6), 5797-5814.

Fisher, M. J., and Marshall, A. P. (2009). Understanding descriptive statistics. Australian Critical Care, 22(2), 93-97.

Foldnes, N. (2016). The flipped classroom and cooperative learning: Evidence from a randomised experiment. Active Learning in Higher Education, 17(1), 39-49.

Ghaith, G. (2001). Learners’ perceptions of their STAD cooperative experience. System, 29(2), 289-301.

Hamdan, M. K. K. H., Salleh, S. M., Shahrill, M., and Asamoah, D. (2022). Improving conceptual knowledge and soft skills among vocational students through inquiry-based learning in a flipped classroom. International Journal of Social Learning, 2(2), 235-249.

Haynie, W. J. (1997). Effects of anticipation of test on delayed retention learning. Journal of Technology Education, 9(1), 20-30.

Hong, Y., Chen, L.-G., Huang, J.-H., Tsai, Y.-Y., and Chang, T.-Y. (2022). The impact of cooperative learning method on the oral proficiency of learners of the training program for English tourist guides. Frontiers in Psychology, 13(6), 1-13.

Jainal, N. H., and Shahrill, M. (2021). Incorporating Jigsaw Strategy to Support Students' Learning through Action Research. International Journal on Social and Education Sciences, 3(2), 252-266.

Johnson, D. W., and Johnson, R. T. (1999). Making cooperative learning work. Theory into Practice, 38(2), 67-73.

Kani, N. H. A., and Shahrill, M. (2015). Applying the thinking aloud pair problem solving strategy in mathematics lessons. Asian Journal of Management Sciences and Education, 4(2), 20-28.

Kent, S., Wanzek, J., Swanson, E. A., and Vaughn, S. (2015). Team-based learning for students with high-incidence disabilities in high school social studies classrooms. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 30(1), 3-14.

Khalid A. A-S. (2016). The effect of using active learning strategies on secondary EFL learners’ grammar achievement. American Journal of Educational Research, 7(4), 309-312.

Khun-Inkeeree, H., Omar-Fauzee, M. S., and Haji Othman, M. K. (2018). The effects of student achievement team-division (STAD) on achievement and retention in mathematics of Thai Students. European Journal of Education Studies, 5(2), 33-47.

Li, M., Yin, D., Qiu, H., and Bai, B. (2021). A systematic review of AI technology-based service encounters: Implications for hospitality and tourism operations. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 95, 1-10.

Lim, M. T. L., Shahrill, M., Mundia, L., Tengah, K. A., Tan, A., and Mahadi, M. A. (2016). An alternative approach to teaching: Implementing a cooperative learning strategy students team achievement division at the junior college level. Advanced Science Letters, 22(5-6), 1725-1729.

Listiadi, A., Sulistyowati, R., and Canda Sakti, N. (2019). Improving learning quality through NHT cooperation model in Indonesian vocational schools. KnE Social Sciences, 3(11), 884-902.

Margono, M., R., and Arianto, F. (2021). Attitude development with coaching cooperative in vocational education cadets. Academic Research International, 12(1), 52-60.

Mendo-Lázaro, S., León-Del-Barco, B., Polo-Del-Río, M. I., and López-Ramos, V. M. (2022). The impact of cooperative learning on university students' academic goals. Frontiers in Psychology, 12, 787210.

Mertler, C. A. (2013). Classroom-based action research: Revisiting the process as customizable and meaningful professional development for educators. Journal of Pedagogic Development, 3(3), 38-42.

Munawar, S., and Chaudhary, A. H. (2019). Effect of cooperative learning on the writing skill at elementary level in the subject of English. Bulletin of Education and Research, 41(3), 35-44.

Nurhayati, D. M., and Hartono, (2016). Implementation of cooperative learning model type STAD with RME approach to understanding of mathematical concept student state junior high school in Pekanbaru. AIP Conference Proceedings 1848, 1-5.

Rachmawati, L. A., Supriyanto, T., and Doyin, M. (2019). The effectiveness of learning to write poetry with the student team achievement division (STAD) model. Journal of Primary Education, 8, 248-253.

Rahmatika, A. (2019). The effectiveness of student team’s achievement division to teach writing viewed from students’ creativity. International Journal of Language Education, 3, 46-54.

Rivera-Pérez S, Fernandez-Rio, J., and Iglesias, G. D. (2020). Effects of an 8-week cooperative learning intervention on physical education students’ task and self-approach goals, and emotional intelligence. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(1), 1-11.

Salleh, S. M., Musa, J., Jaidin, J. H., and Shahrill, M. (2021). Development of TVET teachers’ beliefs about technology enriched instruction through professional development workshops: Application of the technology acceptance model. Journal of Technical Education and Training, 13(2), 25-33.

Sirisrimangkorn, L., and Suwanthep, J. (2013). The effects of integrated drama-based role play and student team’s achievement division (STAD) on students’ speaking skills and affective involvement. Scenario Journal of Drama Theatre for Secondary Language Education, 2, 62-76.

Tran, V. D. (2014). The effects of cooperative learning on the academic achievement and knowledge retention. International Journal of Higher Education, 3(2), 131-140.

van Ryzin, M. J., and Roseth, C. J. (2018). Cooperative learning in middle school: A means to improve peer relations and reduce victimization, bullying, and related outcomes. Journal of Educational Psychology, 110(8), 1192-1201.

Vernon, D. S., Schumaker, J. B., and Deshler, D. D. (2020). The social and academic effects of cooperative learn strategy instruction in inclusive elementary classes. Learning Disability Quarterly, 45(3), 185-198.

Wyk, M. M. (2012). The effects of the STAD cooperative learning method on student achievement, attitude, and motivation in economics education. Journal of Social Sciences, 33(2), 261-270.

Yapici, H. (2016). Use of jigsaw technique to teach the unit “science within time” in secondary 7th grade social sciences course and students' views on this technique. Educational Research and Reviews, 11(8), 773-780.

Wang, Y. P., and Wu, T. J. (2022). Effects of online cooperative learning on students’ problem-solving ability and learning satisfaction. Frontiers in Psychology, 13, 817968.

Yussop, M. A. H., Shahrill, M., and Latif, S. N. A. (2021). Self-reliant learning strategy in vocational and technical education: Insights from group collaboration. International Journal of Social Learning, 1(3), 283-303.

Zhou, Z. (2017). On the strategy to enhance the efficiency of the cooperative learning method in the college English teaching in China. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 7(11), 1091.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

View My Stats
ASEAN Journal of Science and Engineering Education (AJSEE) is published by Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia (UPI)