Kelahiran Arkeologi Indonesia di Ilmu Sosial dan Perkembangannya ke Ilmu Alam

Hendri Asyhari Fajrian Kaharudin

Abstract


Meningkatnya kompleksitas permasalahan dalam penelitian arkeologi terjadi bersamaan dengan berkembangnya teori dan metode penelitian di berbagai disiplin ilmu pengetahuan.  Kedekatannya dengan antropologi, menjadikan arkeologi pada mulanya banyak mengambil teori-teori ilmu sosial yang lebih bersifat kualitatif. Pada perkembangannya, seiring ditemukannya teknik baru dalam pengambilan informasi, membuat para arkeolog lebih banyak bergelut dengan data-data kuantitatif. Praktik ini tak ayal berdampak pada menurunnya penggunaan teori ilmu sosial dalam laporan penelitian arkeologi. Arkeologi yang sangat bersifat multidisiplin menghasilkan spektrum penelitian yang beragam. Tulisan ini berusaha menjabarkan pergeseran nilai yang terjadi dalam paradigma penelitian arkeologi, khususnya di Indonesia, melalui studi pustaka dan analisis deskriptif kualitatif. Karakteristik penelitian arkeologi yang awalnya cenderung bersifat kultural-historis kini bergeser ke natural-historis yang menitikberatkan pada objektivitas penelitian dan keempirisan data. Pergeseran nilai yang terjadi juga berkaitan dengan perubahan tuntutan atas bentuk penelitian arkeologi secara global.


Keywords


Paradigma arkeologi; penelitian; pendidikan; positivisme; relativisme.

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.17509/historia.v3i1.20142

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