Primardiana Hermilia Wijayati, Dewi Kartika Ardiyani, Edy Hidayat


Critical thinking has become one of the main education goals in this 21st century as the trend in the global market also requires graduates to be able to apply critical thinking skills to work settings. This study aims to describe the strategy of providing feedback to improve the critical thinking skills of German as a foreign language (GFL) learners in Indonesia. The research data were collected through observations and interviews with German students and lecturers at Universitas Negeri Malang, Indonesia, and presented descriptively qualitatively with observation and interview instruments. The results showed that asking questions to students, providing comments, encouraging output, and giving praise are the feedback strategies that can improve students' critical thinking skills. Lecturers provide several questions that lead them to think and answer these questions. The questions should be given to all students in the class so that students gradually are encouraged to be more active. Through those feedback strategies, learners are triggered to memorize, understand, apply, analyze, reformulate, and evaluate the learned materials. All those strategies are implemented to lead the students to better critical thinking skills. It is recommended that lecturers apply more types of feedback so that students have more opportunities to improve their language skills.


feedback strategies, critical thinking skill, DaF

Full Text:



Aina, Q., & Wijayati, P. H. (2019). Coping the academic stress: The way the students dealing with stress. KnE Social Sciences, 3(10), 212–223.

Al-Bashir, Md. M., Kabir, Md. R., & Rahman, I. (2016). The value and effectiveness of feedback in improving students’ learning and professionalizing teaching in higher education. Journal of Education and Practice, 7(16). 38-41.

Al-Ghamdi, A. (2017). Building a positive environment in classrooms through feedback and praise english. Language Teaching, 10(6). 37-43.

AlMarwani, M. (2020). Pedagogical potential of SWOT analysis: An approach to teaching critical thinking. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 38, 1-6.

Alsaleh, N. J. (2020). Teaching critical thinking skills: Literature review. Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology-TOJET, 19(1), 21-39.

Awan, R., Azher, M., Anwar, M. N., & Naz, A. (2010). An investigation of foreign language classroom anxiety and its relationship with students achievement. Journal of College Teaching & Learning, 7(11), 33–40.

Barahmeh, M. (2013). Measuring speaking anxiety among speech communication course students at the Arab American University of Jenin (AAUJ). European Social Sciences Research Journal, 1(3), 229–248.

Cahyati, S. S., Parmawati, A., & Atmawidjaja, N. S. (2019). Optimizing english teaching and learning process to young learners (a case study in Cimahi). Journal Of Educational Experts (JEE), 2(2), 107-114.

Cavaleri, M., Kawaguchi, S., Di Biase, B., & Power, C. (2019). How recorded audio-visual feedback can improve academic language support. Journal of University Teaching & Learning Practice, 16(4), 1-21.

Cavanaugh, A. J., & Song, L. (2014). Audio feedback versus written feedback: Instructors’ and students’ perspectives. Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 10(1), 122–138.

Chandler, J. (2003). The efficacy of various error feedback for improvement in the accuracy and fluency of L2 student writing. Journal of Second Language Writing, 12, 267–269.

Cho, J., & Baek, W. (2019). Identifying factors affecting the quality of teaching in basic science education: physics, biological sciences, mathematics, and chemistry. Sustainability, 11(14), 3958.

Ekahitanond, V. (2013). Promoting university students’ critical thinking skills through peer feedback activity in an online discussion forum. Alberta Journal of Educational Research, 59(2), 247–265.

Ellis, R. (2009). Corrective feedback and teacher development. L2 Journal, 1(1), 3-18.

Eyni, S., Ebadi, M., Saadatmand, S., & Torabi, N. (2021). The role of creative thinking, mindfulness and emotional intelligence in predicting the academic stress of gifted students. Thinking and children, 11(2), 183-210.

Faridah, D., Thoyyibah, L., & Kurnia, A. D. (2020). Promoting students’ critical thinking through peer feedback in oral communication classroom. Academic Journal Perspective: Education, Language, and Literature, 8(1), 50-59.

Ferris, S., & Robert, B. (2001). Error feedback in L2 writing classes: How explicit does it need to be? Journal of Second Language Writing, 10(3), 161–184.

Fischer, S., & Modena. (2005). Sprechmotivation und sprechangst im DaFUnterricht. German as A Foreign Language GFL, 3, 31–45.

Galikyan, I., & Admiraal, W. (2019). Students' engagement in asynchronous online discussion: The relationship between cognitive presence, learner prominence, and academic performance. The Internet and Higher Education, 43, 100692.

Greif, R., & Breckwoldt, J. (2012). Warum lebenslanges Lernen ohne effektives Feedback nicht wirkungsvoll ist (why lifelong learning is not effective without effective feedback). Notfall+ Rettungsmedizin, 3(15), 193-197.

Ha, X. V., Murray, J. C., & Riazi, A. M. (2021). High school EFL students’ beliefs about oral corrective feedback: The role of gender, motivation and extraversion. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching, 11(2), 235-264. 10.14746/ssllt.2021.11.2.4

Haydon, T., Musti-Rao, S., Kennedy, A., Murphy, M., Hunter, W., & Boone, J. (2020). Using teacher praise with middle and high school students. Beyond Behavior, 29(2), 108-115.

Hussin, W. N. T. W., Harun, J., & Shukor, N. A. (2019). Online interaction in social learning environment towards critical thinking skill: A framework. Journal of Technology and Science Education, 9(1), 4-12.

Isnawati, I., Sulistyo, G. H., Widiati, U, & Suryati, N. (2019). Impacts of teacher-written corrective feedback with teacher-student conference on students’ revision. International Journal of Instruction, 12(1), 669–684.

Jasrial, D., Yunita, W., Sukma, B., & Anggaira, A. S. (2021). Appreciating students’ responses: Verbal and non-verbal compliments used by english teachers in classroom. Pedagogy: Journal of English Language Teaching, 9(2), 165-176.

Kang, Y. S., & Chang, Y. J. (2019). Using a motion‐controlled game to teach four elementary school children with intellectual disabilities to improve hand hygiene. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 32(4), 942-951.

Karaman, M. A., Lerma, E., Vela, J. C., & Watson, J. C. (2019). Predictors of academic stress among college students. Journal of College Counseling, 22(1), 41-55.

Karim, K., & Nassaji, H. (2019). The effects of written corrective feedback: a critical synthesis of past and present research. Instructed Second Language Acquisition, 3(1), 28-52.

Killingback, C., Ahmed, O., & Williams, J. (2019). ‘It was all in your voice’-tertiary student perceptions of alternative feedback modes (audio, video, podcast, and screencast): A qualitative literature review. Nurse education today, 72, 32-39.

Kincade, L., Cook, C., & Goerdt, A. (2020). Meta-analysis and common practice elements of universal approaches to improving student-teacher relationships. Review of Educational Research, 90(5), 710-748.

Låg, T., & Sæle, R. G. (2019). Does the flipped classroom improve student learning and satisfaction? a systematic review and meta-analysis. AERA open, 5(3), 1-17.

Li, S. (2018). Corrective Feedback. In J. Liontas et al. (Eds.). The TESOL encyclopedia of English language teaching. Blackwell.

Limbach, B., Duron, R., & Waugh, W. (2008). Become a better teacher: Five steps in the direction of critical thinking. Research in Higher Education Journal, 1, 1–13.

Lyster, R., & Ranta, L. (2013). Counterpoint piece: The case for variety in corrective feedback research. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 35(1), 167–184.

Mahfoozifard, S., & Mehdiabadi, F. (2016). The effect of direct vs. indirect feedback on the speaking accuracy of Iranian learners at elementary level of proficiency. International Journal of Basic Sciences & Applied Research, 5(2), 99–105.

Mpungose, C. B. (2021). Lecturers’ reflections on use of zoom video conferencing technology for e-learning at a South African University in the context of coronavirus. African Identities, 21(2), 1-17.

Muhsin, A. (2016). The effectiveness of positive feedback in teaching speaking skill. Lingua Cultura, 10(1), 25-30.

Nazir, M., Bashir, S., & Raja, Z. B. (2014). A study of second language speakinganxiety among ESL intermediate Pakistani learners. International Journal of English and Education, 5(2), 99–105.

Nicol, D. J., & Macfarlane-Dick, D. (2006). Formative assessment and self‐regulated learning: A model and seven principles of good feedback practic. Studies in Higher Education, 31(2), 199–218.

O’Sullivan, I., & Chambers, A. (2006). Learners’ writing skills in French corpus consultation and learner evaluation. Journal of Second Writing, 15, 49–68.

Pardo, A., Jovanovic, J., Dawson, S., Gašević, D., & Mirriahi, N. (2019). Using learning analytics to scale the provision of personalised feedback. British Journal of Educational Technology, 50(1), 128-138.

Procentese, F., Capone, V., Caso, D., Donizzetti, A. R., & Gatti, F. (2020). Academic community in the face of emergency situations: Sense of responsible togetherness and sense of belonging as protective factors against academic stress during COVID-19 outbreak. Sustainability, 12(22), 1-12.

Ratnah. (2013). Feedback expressions used by an english teacher of tour and travel department. Indonesian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 3(1), 53–67.

Retna, K. S., & Cavana, R. Y. (2013). Undergraduate management students’ perceptions of feedback in a New Zealand university. Journal of Management & Organization, 19(2), 224–237.

Sarcona, A., Dirhan, D., & Davidson, P. (2020). An overview of audio and written feedback from students’ and instructors’ perspective. Educational Media International, 57(1), 47-60.

Sato, M., & Loewen, S. (2019). Methodological strengths, challenges, and joys of classroom-based quasi-experimental research. Doing SLA research with implications for the classroom: Reconciling methodological demands and pedagogical applicability, 31-54.

Sheen, Y. (2007). The effect of focused written corrective feedback and language aptitude on ESL learners’ acquisition of articles. TESOL Quarterly, 41, 255–283.

Sheikh, S. U., & Ali, M. A. (2019). Al-ghazali's aims and objectives of islamic education. Journal of Education and Educational Development, 6(1), 111-125.

Sridharan, B., & Boud, D. (2019). The effects of peer judgements on teamwork and self-assessment ability in collaborative group work. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 44(6), 894-909.

Tapper, J. (2004). Learner perceptions of how critical thinking is embedded in a degree program. Higher Education Reserach and Development, 23(2), 199–222.

Van der Kleij, F. M. (2019). Comparison of teacher and student perceptions of formative assessment feedback practices and association with individual student characteristics. Teaching and Teacher Education, 85, 175-189.

Wang, S., & Zhang, D. (2020). Perceived teacher feedback and academic performance: The mediating effect of learning engagement and moderating effect of assessment characteristics. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 45(7), 973-987.

Vattøy, K. D., & Smith, K. (2019). Students' perceptions of teachers' feedback practice in teaching english as a foreign language. Teaching and Teacher Education, 85, 260-268.

Wijayati, P. H., Ro’fiah, & Ayub, A. F. M. (2018). My lecturer’s expressionless face kills me: An evaluation learning process. Research and Evaluation in Education (REiD), Volume 4 (2), 94-104. 10.21831/reid.v4i2.22466

Won, N., Liu, K., & Bukko, D. (2019). Developing instructional skills: Perspectives of feedback in student teaching. Online Journal for Teacher Research, 21(2), 1-12.

Young, P. (2000). “I Might as Well Give Up”: Self-esteem and mature students’ feelings about feedback on assignments. Journal of Further and Higher Education, 24(3), 409–418.

Zapalka, A. M., Nowduri, S., Imbriale, P., Wrowblewski, B., & Glinski, M. (2018). A framework for critical thinking skills development across business curriculum using the 21 century Bloom’s taxonomy. Interdisciplinary Education and Psychology, 2(2), 1-14.

Živković, S. (2016). A model of critical thinking as an important attribute for success in the 21st century. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 232, 102–108.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 Primardiana Hermilia Wijayati, Dewi Kartika Ardiyani, Edy Hidayat

Lisensi Creative Commons
This work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.