Arif Husein Lubis


It has been approximately 25 years that reflective teaching in EFL context, particularly in Asia is being encouraged and reviewed. The notable goal emphasizes the teachers’ role as critical lifelong learners in or outside the classroom to bring about continuous mutual development between them and the surroundings. Although myriad research-based studies have paid attention to the developmental praxis of reflective teaching, scant published articles highlight the progress of its empowerment process and quality in Indonesia. Thus, this paper will address some points related to how this realm is being concerned and developed reflecting from the preceding and contemporary discussion and its milestone in Indonesia within Asia scope. Furthermore, the envision of future direction is prompted from current portrait, existing challenges, and expectations concerning the theoretical foundation, means and models, ICT integration, and character education toward 21st-century English teachers’ professional autonomy.


Reflective teaching, teacher education, Indonesian EFL teachers, professional autonomy

Full Text:



Afshar, H. S., & Farahani, M. (2015). Reflective thinking and reflective teaching among Iranian EFL teachers: Do gender and teaching experience make a difference?. Procedia, Social and Behavioral Sciences, 192, 615-620.

Akbari, R. (2007). Reflections on reflection: A critical appraisal of reflective practices in L2 teacher education. System, 35, 192-207.

Akbari, R., Behzadpoor, F., & Dadvand, B. (2010). Development of English language teaching reflection inventory. System, 38, 211-227.

Al-Ahdal, A. A. M. H., & Al-Awaid, S. A. A. (2014). Reflective teaching and language teacher education programmes: A milestone in Yemen and Saudi Arabia. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 5(4), 759-768.

Alfaki, I. M. (2014). Professional development in English language teaching: A teachers’ view. British Journal of Education, 2(7), 32-49.

Alghamdi, A. H., & Li, L. (2011). Teachers’ continuing professional development programmes in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Almabekova, O. A. (2010). Reflective teaching in ESP. Journal of Siberian Federal University, Humanities and Social Sciences, 3(3), 462-475.

Amalia, L. L. (2017). Reflective practice and self identity as parts of professional development: A survey in an EFL tertiary level (Unpublished results).. Retrieved from

Ansarin, A. A., Farrokhi, F., & Rahmani, M. (2015). Iranian EFL teachers’ reflection levels: The role of gender, experience, and qualifications. The Asian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 2(2), 140-155.

Astika, G. (2014). Reflective teaching as alternative assessment in teacher education: A case study of preservice teachers. TEFLIN Journal, 25(1), 16-32.

Beck, C., & Kosnik, C. (2001). Reflection-in-action: In defence of thoughtful teaching. Curriculum Inquiry, 31(2), 217-227.

Bergmann, J. C. F., & da Silva, M. (2013). The reflective process in initial teacher education: Virtual diaries in distance education. Diálogo Educ., 13(40), 999-1020.

Boud, D. (2001). Using journal writing to enhance reflective practice. In L. M. English, & M. A. Gillen (Eds), Promoting journal writing in adult education. New directions in adult and continuing education, (pp. 9-18). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Brandenburg, R., & McDonough, S. (2017). Using critical incidents to reflect on teacher educator practice. In Brandenburg, R., Glasswell, K., Jones, M., & Ryan, J (Eds.), Reflective theory and practice in teacher education: Self-study of teaching and teacher education practices, (pp. 223-236). Singapore: Springer.

Broady, E. (2002). Changes, challenges, and complexity: Recent debates in English language teaching. The Language Learning Journal, 26(1), 62-67.

Brooke, M. (2012). Enhancing preservice teacher training: The construction and application of a model for developing teacher reflective practice online. Open Journal of Modern Linguistics, 2(4), 180-188.

Brooke, M. (2014). Developing the reflective practice capabilities of preservice trainees in TESOL through online means. In X. Deng, & R. Seow (Eds.), Proceedings the 4th CELC Symposium (pp. 50-60). National University of Singapore, Singapore: National University of Singapore.

Brookfield, S. (1995). Becoming a critically reflective teacher. San Francisco, CA: Jossey Bass.

Burns, A. (2010). Doing action research in English language teaching: A guide for practitioners. New York, NY: Routledge.

Chalikandy, M. A. (2014). Reflection: A tool for professional development. Researchers World, Journal of Arts, Science & Commerce, 5(3), 117-124.

Chinh, N. D. (2013). Cultural diversity in English language teaching: Learners’ voices. English Language Teaching, CCSENET, 6(4), 1-7.

Chodidjah, I. (2017). Reflective practice in professional development training: Action research on in-service English teacher training in a secondary school in East Jakarta (Unpublished doctoral thesis). Indonesia University of Education, Indonesia.

Choi, Y. H., & Lee, H. W. (2007). A model of English teacher development in Asia based on surveys on teacher qualifications and education programs. The Journal of Asia TEFL, 4(4), 1-34.

Commins, N. L., & Miramontes, O. B. (2005). Linguistic diversity and teaching. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Dana, N. F., & Yendol-Hoppey, D. (2014). The reflective educator’s guide to classroom research: Learning to teach and teaching to learn through practitioner inquiry (3rd ed.). USA: Corwin, Sage.

Day, C. (1993). Reflection: A necessary but not sufficient condition for teacher development. British Educational Research Journal, 19(1), 83-93.

Dehghan, F., & Sahragard, R. (2015). Iranian EFL teachers’ views on action research and its application in their classrooms: A case study. Journal of Teacher Education and Educators, 4(1), 39-52.

Dewey, J. (1933). How we think: A restatement of the relation of reflective thinking to the educative process. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin.

Dirnberger, G., & Weitensfelder, D. (2009). EPOSTL: A tool for supporting reflection in preservice teacher education. In The Centre for English Language Teaching (Eds.), Proceedings of the Anglistik Conference (pp. 29-32). University of Vienna, Vienna: The Centre for English Language Teaching.

Faghihi, G., & Sarab, M. R. A. (2016). Teachers as reflective practitioners: A survey on Iranian English teachers’ reflective practice. The Journal of Teaching Language Skills, 7(4), 57-86.

Fakazli, Ö., & Gönen, S. İ. K. (2017). Reflection on reflection: EFL university instructors’ perceptions on reflective practices. H. U. Journal of Education, 32(3), 708-726.

Farrell, T. (1999). Understanding reflective teaching. Teaching and Learning, 19(2), 52-63.

Farrell, T. S. C. (2013). Reflective practice in ESL teacher development groups: From practices to principles. London, England: Palgrave Macmillan.

Fatemipour, H., & HosseingholiKhani, F. (2014). The impact of reflective teaching on the EFL teachers’ performance. Journal of Educational and Management Studies, 4(4), 796-799.

Fendler, L. (2003). Teacher reflection in a hall of mirrors: Historical influences and political reverberations. Educational Researcher, 32, 16-25.

Fuller, A. (2013). Reflective action in teaching [Figure]. In A. L. Herrell, M. L. Jordan, & J. W. Eby (Eds.), Teaching in the elementary school: A reflective action approach (6th ed.) (pp. 1-20). New York, NY: Pearson.

Ghaye, T. (2011). Teaching and learning through reflective practice: A practical guide for positive action (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group.

Ghazalbash, N., & Afghari, A. (2015). Relationship between burnout and reflective teaching among EFL teachers. International Journal of Foreign Language Teaching and Research, 3(12), 41-51.

Grimmett, P. P., MacKinnon, A. M., Erickson, G. L., & Riecken, T. J. (1990). Reflective practice in teacher education. In R. T. Clift, W. R. Houston, & M. C. Pugach (Eds.), Encouraging reflective practice in education: An analysis of issues and programs (pp. 20-38). New York, NY: Teachers College Press.

Harendita, R. E. (2017). The use of digital media to facilitate critical reflection in microteaching class (Unpublished results). Retrieved from

Ho, B., & Richards, J. C. (1993). Reflective thinking through teacher journal writing: Myths and realities. Retrieved from

Jadidi, A., & Keshavarz, M. (2013). The impact of Iranian EFL teachers’ reflection on their incorporation of strategy-based instruction. International Journal of Language Learning and Applied Linguistics World, 4(3), 140-148.

Jalilifar, A., & Nattaq, F. (2013). Reflective teaching in the context of a video club: Nurturing professional relationships and building a learner community. International Journal of Society, Culture & Language, 1(2), 51-66.

Jay, J. K., & Johnson, K. L. (2002). Capturing complexity: A typology of reflective practice for teacher education. Teaching and Teacher Education, 18, 73-85.

Johnston, B. (2003). Values in English language teaching. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Jones, M., & Ryan, J. (2014). Successful teacher education: Partnerships, reflective practice and the place of technology. Rotterdam: Sense.

Kaneko-Marques, S. M. (2015). Reflective teacher supervision through videos of classroom teaching. PROFILE Issues in Teachers’ Professional Development, 17(2), 63-79.

Kayapinar, U. (2016). A study on reflection in in-service teacher development: Introducing reflective practitioner development model. Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice, 16(5), 1671-1691.

Kirkpatrick, R. (Ed.). (2016). English language education policy in Asia. Dordrecht: Springer.

Kumaravadivelu, B. (2003). Beyond methods: Macrostrategies for language teaching. USA: Yale University Press.

Lakshmi, B. S. (2014). Reflective practice through journal writing and peer observation: A case study. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education, 15(4), 189-204.

Lan, M. H., & Wang, K.-P. (2013). The effects of reflective teaching on an intensive teacher training program. Indonesian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 3(1), 81-102.

Lee, H.-J. (2005). Understanding and assessing preservice teachers’ reflective thinking. Teaching and Teacher Education, 21, 699-715.

Lee, I. (2008). Fostering preservice reflection through response journals. Teacher Education Quarterly, 117-139.

Li, Z., & Ye, Z. (2016). On reflective teaching of EFL teachers in local universities of China: A case study of Leshan Normal University, Sichuan. English Language Teaching, 9(6), 154-161.

Loughran, J. J. (1996). Developing reflective practitioners: Learning about teaching and learning through modelling. London: Falmer Press.

Loughran, J. J. (2002). Effective reflective practice: In search of meaning in learning about teaching. Journal of Teacher Education, 53(1), 33-43.

Lubis, A. H. (2017). Teaching reflection: A voice from Indonesian EFL teachers. International Journal of English Language Teaching and Linguistics, 2(1), 29-39.

Mann, S. (2005). The foreign language teachers’ development. Lang. Teach., 38, 103-118.

Menon, S. U., & Alamelu, C. (2011). Role of reflective teaching in the evolution of an effective teacher. MJAL, 3(2), 78-85.

Ministry of Education and Culture. (2014). Standar kualifikasi dan kompetensi instruktur kursus dan pelatihan (no. 90). Jakarta, Indonesia: Author.

Ministry of Education and Culture. (2016). Guru pembelajar: Pedoman program peningkatan kompetensi (Moda tatap muka, daring, dan daring kombinasi). Jakarta, Indonesia: Directorate General of Teachers and Educational Practitioners.

Ministry of Justice and Human Rights. (2005). Teacher and Lecturer (no. 14). Jakarta, Indonesia: Author.

Ministry of National Education. (2007). Standar kualifikasi akademik dan kompetensi guru (no. 16). Jakarta, Indonesia: Author.

Ministry of National Education. (2008). Standar kualifikasi akademik dan kompetensi guru pendidikan khusus (no. 32). Jakarta, Indonesia: Author.

Minott, M. A. (2009). Supporting reflective teaching via schools’ culture: A framework utilizing Tierney’s understands of schools’ culture. Education-Line. Retrieved from

Mishra, P., & Koehler, M. J. (2006). Technological pedagogical content knowledge: A framework for teacher knowledge. Teachers College Record, 108(6), 1017-1054.

Mori, R. (2004). Personal growth in teacher development: A case study. In M. Swanson, & K. Hill (Eds.), Proceedings of the JALT 2003 Conference (pp. 155-161). Tokyo: Japan Association for Language Teaching.

Murphy, M. J. (2001). Reflective teaching in ELT. In Marianne C.-M (Ed.), Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language (pp. 499-514). Boston: Heinle & Heinle.

Murray, A. (2010). Empowering teachers through professional development. English Teaching Forum, 1, 2-10.

Musa, N. C., Lie, K. Y., & Azman, H. (2012). Exploring English language learning and teaching in Malaysia. Journal of Language Studies, GEMA OnlineTM, Special Section, 12(1), 35-51.

Mynard, J. (2007). A blog as a tool for reflection for English language learners. Asian EFL Journal, Professional Teaching Articles, 24, 1-10.

National Council of Educational Research and Training. (2015). Guidelines for teacher continuous professional development for RMSA. India: RMSA-TCA.

Negari, G. M., & Beiranvand, Z. (2013). Investigating Iranian EFL teachers’ reflective teaching and their critical thinking abilities. International Journal of Science and Research, 4(3), 776-782.

Newby, D., Allan, R., Fenner, A.-B., Jones, B., Komorowska, H., & Soghikyan, K. (2007). European portfolio for student teachers of languages: A reflection tool for language teacher education. Austria: Council of Europe.

Nurfaidah, S., Lengkanawati, N. S., & Sukyadi, D. (2017). Levels of reflection in EFL pre-service teachers’ teaching journal. Indonesian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 7(1), 80-92.

Parkes, K. A., Dredger, K. S., & Hicks, D. (2013). ePortfolio as a measure of reflective practice. International Journal of ePortfolio, 3(2), 99-115.

Prapphal, K. (2004). A reflection of English teaching. MANUSYA: Journal of Humanities, Special issue, 7, 1-5.

Rahimi, A., & Chabok, S. (2013). EFL teachers’ levels of reflective teaching and their conceptions of teaching and learning. Journal of Advanced Social Research, 3(1), 12-29.

Reichmann, C. L. (2010). Constructing communities of practice through memoirs and journals. In J. Burton, P. Quirke, C. L. Reichmann, & J. K. Peyton (Eds.), Reflective writing: A way to lifelong teacher learning (pp. 49-62). USA: TESL-EJ Publications.

Richards, J. C. (2008). Towards reflective teaching. Retrieved from

Richards, J. C., & Farrell, T. S. C. (2005). Professional development for foreign language teachers: Strategies for teacher learning. USA: Cambridge University Press.

Richards, J. C., & Lockhart, C. (2007). Reflective teaching in second language classrooms. USA: Cambridge University Press.

Romero, T. R. S. (2010). Reflecting through autobiographies in teacher education. In J. Burton, P. Quirke, C. L. Reichmann, & J. K. Peyton (Eds.), Reflective writing: A way to lifelong teacher learning (pp. 82-95). USA: TESL-EJ Publications.

Ross, D. (1987). Action research for preservice teachers: A description of why and how. Peabody Journal of Education, 64, 131-150.

Rossner, R. (1992). Where there’s a will: Facilitating teacher development. Teacher Development Newsletter (IATEFL), 18, 4-5.

Sammaknejad, A., & Marzban, A. (2016). An analysis of teachers’ self-reflection on classroom management. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 6(1), 84-89.

Sanopao, J. P. (2016). The reflective teaching practices and teaching performance of public secondary English teachers. International Journal of Social Science and Humanities Research, 4(1), 358-367.

Saylag, R. (2012). Self reflection on the teaching practice of English as a second language: Becoming the critically reflective teacher. Procedia, Social and Behavioral Sciences, 46, 3847-3851.

Schmid, E. C. (2011). Video-stimulated reflection as a professional development tool in interactive whiteboard research. ReCALL, 23(3), 252-270.

Schön, D. A. (1983). The reflective practitioner: How professionals think in action. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Sharafi, S., & Rokni, S. J. A. (2014). The effect of reflective teaching on preservice teachers’ learning and teaching development in a learner-centered situation. International Journal of Language Learning and Applied Linguistics World, 5(4), 49-58.

State Ministry for the Empowerment of State Apparatus and Birocracy Reform. (2009). Jabatan fungsional dan angka kredit guru no. 16. Jakarta: Author.

Suaib, N. R. A., & Tohamba, C. P. P. (2017). Evaluation of reflective writing practice on preservice teachers: Systemic functional linguistics approach (Unpublished results). Retrieved from

Suherdi, D. (2012). Rekonstruksi pendidikan bahasa: Sebuah keniscayaan bagi keunggulan bangsa. Bandung: CELTICS Press.

Sze, P. (1999). Reflective teaching in second language teacher education: An overview. Educational Research Journal, 14(1), 131-155.

The Government of Republic of Indonesia. (2005). Standar nasional pendidikan. Jakarta, Indonesia: Author.

Tierney, W. G. (1988). Organizational culture in higher education: Defining the essentials. Journal of Higher Education, 59(1), 2-21.

Trites, L. (2010). Small-group journals as a tool of critical reflection: A measure of success and failure. In J. Burton, P. Quirke, C. L. Reichmann, & J. K. Peyton (Eds.), Reflective writing: A way to lifelong teacher learning (pp. 72-81). USA: TESL-EJ Publications.

United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization. (2016). Teachers in the Asia-Pacific: Career progression and professional development. France: Author.

Wang, J. (2011). Culture differences and English teaching. English Language Teaching, CCSENET, 4(2), 223-230.

Yeşilbursa, A. (2011). Descriptive versus dialogic reflection and positive versus negative stance in the reflective writing of Turkish prospective English language teachers. Novitas-ROYAL, Research on Youth and Language, 5(2),169-182.

Zalipour, A. (2015). Reflective practice. New Zealand: The University of Waikato, Teaching Development Unit.

Zeichner, K. M., & Liston, D. P. (1996). Reflective teaching: An introduction. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 Arif Husein Lubis

Lisensi Creative Commons
This work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.