Mapping Indonesian EFL Teachers’ Perception and Practice of Technology Integration

Endang Setyaningsih, Dewi Sri Wahyuni, Dewi Rochsantiningsih


The growing number of 2.0 studies indicated the increasing tendency to integrate technology into EFL teaching. Reports on teachers' perception of and practice of technology integration can easily be found in research databases. Nevertheless, quite a few laid attempts to map and build a tentative connection between perception and practice. This study examined teachers' current practice and their perception of technology integration. The respondents of this study were 40 English teachers from 20 senior high schools in a district in Indonesia. To collect the data, a technology integration questionnaire (TIQ) was developed based on pre-existing instruments. The responses were analyzed using both quantitative and qualitative strategies. The study found that, first, the teachers commonly held positive views on the use of technology although they also indicated their alert on the challenges and requirements for the success of the implementation. Second, the responses suggested that there was a connection between teachers' perception and their technology integration practice. Third, viewed from the SAMR model, the teachers' technology integration practice mainly fell into substitution and augmentation. Categorization of the technology integration purpose, practice, and process is discussed further. The study concludes teachers’ practice tended to focus more on the technology but less on the teaching and learning.


EFL teaching; SAMR; teacher perception; technology integration

Full Text:



Chen, C. (2008). Why do Teachers not practice what they believe regarding technology integration? The Journal of Educational Research, 102 (1), 65-75.

Ertmer, P. A., Ottenbreit-Leftwich, A.T., Sadik, O., Sendurur, E., Sendurur, P. (2012). Teacher beliefs and technology integration practices: A critical relationship. Computers & Education, 59, 423–435.

Floris, F. D., & Renandya, W.A. (2019). Unlocking the potentials of SAMR. English Teaching Professional. Pavilion Publishing and Media ltd.

Francom, G. M. (2020). Barriers to technology integration: A time-series survey study. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 52(1), 1-16.

Gao, P., Wong, A. F. L., Choy, D., & Wu, J. (2011). Beginning teachers’ understanding performances of technology integration. Asia Pacific Journal of Education, 31(2), 211-23

Glassett, K., & Schrum, L. (2009). Teacher beliefs and student achievement in technology-rich classroom environments. International Journal of Technology in Teaching and Learning, 5(2), 138-153.

Halvorsen, A. D. (2020). Divergent teacher viewpoints of technology integration in the language classroom. in Management Association, I., Language Learning and Literacy: Breakthroughs in Research and Practice (pp. 716-737). 10.4018/978-1-5225-9618-9.ch037

Hamilton, E. R., Rosenberg, J. M., & Akcaoglu, M. (2016). The substitution augmentation modification redefinition (SAMR) model: A critical review and suggestions for its use. Tech Trends, 60(5), 433-41, (September 2016).

Hartman, R. J., Townsend, M. B., Jackson, M. (2019). Educators’ perceptions of technology integration into the classroom: A descriptive case study. Journal of Research in Innovative Teaching & Learning, 12(3), 236-249.

Hennessy, S., Ruthven, K., & Brindley, S. (2005). Teacher perspectives on integrating ICT into subject teaching: Commitment, constraints, caution, and change. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 37(2), 155-92,

Hilton, J. T. (2016). A case study of the application of SAMR and TPACK for reflection on technology integration into two social studies classrooms. The Social Studies, 107(2), 68-73.

Kearney, M., Schuck, S., Burden, K., & Aubusson, P. (2012). Viewing mobile learning from a pedagogical perspective. Research in Learning Technology, 20,

Khlaif, Z., Gok, F., & Kouraichi, B. (2019). How teachers in middle school design technology integration activities. Teaching and Teacher Education, 78, 141-150

Levin, B. B., & Schrum, L. (2013). Using systems thinking to leverage technology for school improvement: Lessons learned from award-winning secondary Schools/Districts. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 46(1), 29-51.

Livingstone, S. (2012). Critical reflections on the benefits of ICT in education.” Oxford Review of Education, 38(1), 9-24,

McKnight, K., O’Malley, K., Ruzic, R., Horsley, M.K., Franey, J. J., & Bassett, K. (2016). Teaching in a digital age: How educators use technology to improve student learning. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 48(3), 194-211

Mishra, P., & Koehler, M.J. (2006). Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge: A new framework for teacher knowledge. Teachers College Record, 108(6), 1017-1054.

Puentedura, R (2014a). SAMR: A contextualized introduction. Lecture at Pine Cobble School. Retrieved March 13 2019.

____________. (2014b). Building transformation: An introduction to the SAMR model [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://www.hippasus

Ramorola, M.Z., (2013). Challenge of effective technology integration into teaching and learning. Africa Education Review, 10(4), 654-70

Unser, C. E. (2017). A study on the positives and negatives of using technology in the classroom. Undergraduate Honors College Theses. 18. Accessed from on June, 9, 2020

Wang, Q (2008). A Generic model for guiding the integration of ICT into teaching and learning. Innovations in Education and Teaching International 45(4), 411–19.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2020 Endang Setyaningsih, Dewi Sri Wahyuni, Dewi Rochsantiningsih

Lisensi Creative Commons
This work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.