Development of a Perception Scale of Private Lesson: A Validity and Reliability Study

Ahmet Yildiz, Mesut Butun, Ali Turkdogan, Ekrem Kocak


The purpose of the research is to develop a valid and reliable perception scale that can measure the perception of math teachers (198) and science teachers (120) towards private lesson. In the validity studies, the exploratory factor analysis was made with the SPSS 25.0 package program after that the confirmatory factor analysis was made with Lisrel 8.71 software. To develop the scale; 1. Creation of Item Pool 2. Obtaining Expert Opinion, 3. Creation of Pre-Trial Form 4. Factor Analysis 5. Confirmatory factor analysis. According to factor analysis; Kaiser Meyer Olkin (KMO) rate; .780; Bartlett test result: 7466.539; Cronbach alpha reliability coefficient is: .901. According to confirmatory factor analysis: Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA) 0.043 (<.05); p-Value for Test of Close Fit .00 (<.05, Goodness of Fit Index (GFI) .96, Adjusted Goodness of Fit Index (AGFI) .93; Normed Fit Index (NFI) .97; Relative Fit Index (RFI) .96; Incremental Fix Index (IFI): .99; Degrees of Freedom: 38; Root Mean Square Residual (RMR): .037 and NonNormed Fit Index (NNFI): .98. According to research findings, the perception scale is valid and reliable so it can be used to determine math teachers and science teachers’ positive and negative perceptions of private lesson.


Private lesson; perception; perception scale; mathematics teachers; science teachers

Full Text:



Adcock, A.B. & Van Eck, R.N. (2005). Reliability and factor structure of the attitude toward tutoring agent scale (ATTAS). Journal of Interactive Learning Research, 16(2), 195-217.

Akdemir, A. B. (2018). Ortaöğretim öğrencilerinin özel ders alma süreçlerinin incelenmesi [Examining the process of taking private lessons of secondary school students]. [Master thesis, Abant İzzet Baysal University]. Düzce, Türkiye.

Akdemir, A. B., & Kılıç, A. (2020). Ortaöğretim öğrencilerinin özel ders alma nedenlerinin incelenmesi [Investigatıon of secondary school students' reasons for private lessons]. Bolu Abant İzzet Baysal Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 20(2), 1008-1023.

Altinyelken, H. K. (2013). The demand for private tutoring in Turkey: Unintended consequences of curriculum reform. In Private tutoring across the Mediterranean (pp. 187-204). Brill.

Bartholomew, D. J., Knott, M., & Moustaki, I, (2011) Latent variable models and factor analysis: A unified approach. John Wiley & Sons.

Bray, M. (1999). The shadow education system: Private tutoring and its implications for planners (Fundamentals of Educational Planning 61). Paris: UNESCO International Institute for Educational Planning (IIEP).

Bray, M. (2006). Private supplementary tutoring: Comparative perspectives on patterns and implications. Compare: A Journal of Comparative Education, 36, 515-530.

Bray, M. (2007). The Shadow Education System. UNESCO, International Institute for Educational Planning.

Bray, M., & Kobakhidze, M. N. (2015). Evolving ecosystems in education: The nature and implications of private supplementary tutoring in Hong Kong. Prospects, 45(4), 465-481.

Bray, M., Kwo, O., & Jokić, B. (Eds.). (2016). Researching private supplementary tutoring: Methodological lessons from diverse cultures (Vol. 32). Hong Kong: Comparative Education Research Center.

Bray, M., & Lykins, C. (2012). Shadow education: Private supplementary tutoring and its implications for policy makers in Asia. Mandaluyong City, Philippines: Asian Development Bank.

Bray, M., Mazawi, A. E., & Sultana, R. G. (2013). Introduction: Situating private tutoring. In Private Tutoring Across the Mediterranean (pp. 1-10). Brill Sense.

Brown, T. A. (2006). Confirmatory factor analysis for applied research. Guilford Pres.

Brownlow, C. (2004). SPSS explained. Routledge.

Büyüköztürk, Ş. (2009). Sosyal bilimler için veri analizi el kitabı [Manual of data analysis for social sciences]. Pegem Akademi.

Byrne, B. M. (2010). Structural Equation Modeling with AMOS: Basic concepts, applications, and programming. Taylor and Francis Group.

Byun, S. Y., Chung, H., & Baker, D. P. (2018). Global patterns of the use of shadow education: Student, family, and national influences. Research in the Sociology of Education, 20, 75-105.

Corral, S., & Calvete, E. (2000). Machiavellianism: dimensionality of the mach ıv and ıts relation to self-monitoring in a Spanish sample. The Spanish Journal of Psychology, 3(1), 3-13.

Çokluk, Ö., Şekercioğlu, G., & Büyüköztürk, Ş. (2012). Sosyal bilimler için çok değişkenli istatistik: SPSS ve LISREL uygulamaları [Multivariate statistics for social sciences: SPSS and LISREL applications]. Pegem Akademi.

Dawson, W. (2010). Private tutoring and mass schooling in East Asia: Reflections of inequality in Japan, South Korea and Cambodia. Asia Pacific Education Review, 11(1), 14-24.

DeVellis, R. F. (2003). Scale development. Sage Publications.

Dunn-Rankin, P. (2004). Scaling methods. Routledge.

Fabrigar, L. R., & Wegener. D. T. (2011). Exploratory factor analysis. Oxford University Pres.

Field, A. (2005). Factor analysis using SPSS.

Frankel, J. R., & Wallen, N. E. (2006). How to design and evaluate research in education. McGraw Hill.

Guill, K., & Bos, W. (2014). Effectiveness of private tutoring in mathematics with regard to subjective and objective indicators of academic achievement. Evidence from a German secondary school sample. Journal for Educational Research Online, 6(1), 34-67.

Hajar, A. (2018). Exploring year 6 pupils’ perceptions of private tutoring: evidence from three mainstream schools in England. Oxford Review of Education, 44(4), 514-531.

Hamid, M., Sussex, R., & Khan, A. (2009). Private tutoring in English for secondary school students in Bangladesh. TESOL Quarterly, 43(2), 281-308.

Hoe, S. L. (2008). Issues and procedures in adopting structural equation modeling technique. Journal of Applied Quantitative Methods, 3(1), 76-83.

Hutcheson, G. D., & Sofroniou, N. (1999). The Multivariate social scientist: introductory statistics using generalized linear models. Sage.

Ireson, J. (2004). Private tutoring: How prevalent and effective is it? London Review of Education, 2(2), 109-122.

Ireson, J., & Rushforth, K. (2014). Why do parents employ private tutors for their children? Exploring psychological factors that influence the demand in England. Journal of Educational Research, 6(1), 12- 33.

Karasar, N. (2007). Bilimsel araştırma yöntemi [Scientific research method]. Nobel Yayın Dağıtım.

Khaydarov, S. (2020). Shadow education in Uzbekistan: Teachers’ perceptions of private tutoring in the context of academic lyceums. Orbis scholae, 14(2), 81-104.

Kim, S., & Lee, J. H. (2010). Private tutoring and demand for education in South Korea. Economic Development and Cultural Change, 58(2), 259–296.

Kim, M. (2007). School choice and private supplementary education in South Korea. Paper presented at the IIEP policy forum on ‘Confronting the Shadow Education System: What Government Policies for What Private Tutoring?’. Paris: UNESCO International Institute for Educational Planning (IIEP).

Kirby, P. (2016). Shadow schooling: Private tuition and social mobility in the UK. The Sutton Trust.

Kline, R. B. (2011). Principal and practice of structural equation modelling. The Guilford Press.

Kobakhidze, M. N. (2016). Shadow education research through TIMSS and PIRLS: Experiences and lessons in the Republic of Georgia. In M. Bray, O. Kwo & J. Boris (Eds.), Researching Private Supplementary Tutoring: Methodological Lessons from Diverse Cultures (pp. 23-48). Springer.

Koçak, E. (2022). Matematik öğretmenlerinin özel derse bakış açısı ve çıkarımları [Mathematics teachers' perspectives and inferences for private tutoring]. [Master thesis, Cumhuriyet University]. Sivas, Türkiye.

Köklü, N. (2002). Açıklamalı istatistik terimleri sözlüğü [Annotated glossary of statistical terms]. Nobel Yayın Dağıtım.

Kuan, P.Y. (2011). Effects of cram schooling on mathematics performance: Evidence from Junior High students in Taiwan. Comparative Education Review, 55(3), 342–368.

McCoach, D. B., Gable, R. K., & Madura, J. P. (2013). Instrument development in the affective domain: School and corporate applications. Springer.

Mori, I. (2015). The effects of supplementary tutoring on students’ mathematics achievement in Japan and the United States. Unpublished discussion paper, University of Tokyo, Japan.

Pett, M. A., Lackey, N. R., & Sullivan, J. J. (2003). Making sense of factor analysis: The use of factor analysis for instrument development in health care research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Raykov, T., & Marcoulides, G. A. (2008). An introduction to applied multivariate analysis. Taylor & Francis Group.

Schermelleh-Engel, K., Moosbrugger, H., & Müller, H. (2003). Evaluating the fit of structural equation models: Tests of significance and descriptive goodness-of-fit measures. Methods of Psychological Research Online, 8(2), 23-74.

Sobhy, H. (2012). The de-facto privatization of secondary education in Egypt: A study of private tutoring in technical and general schools. Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education, 42(1), 47-67.

Southgate, D. E. (2009). Determinants of shadow education: A cross-national analysis. [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. The Ohio State University.

Şencan, H. (2005). Sosyal ve davranışsal ölçümlerde güvenilirlik ve geçerlilik [Reliability and validity in social and behavioral measures]. Seçkin Yayıncılık.

Tan, C. (2017). Private supplementary tutoring and parentocracy in Singapore. Interchange, 48, 315-329.

Tansel, A. (2013). Private tutoring and inequitable opportunities in Turkey: Challenges and policy implications. In Private tutoring across the Mediterranean (pp. 177-186). Brill.

Tansel, A., & Bircan, F. (2004). Private tutoring expenditures in Turkey. Discussion Paper No. 1255. Bonn: Institute for the Study of Labour.

Tavşancıl, E. (2005). Algıların ölçülmesi ve SPSS ile veri analizi [Measuring perceptions and data analysis with SPSS]. Nobel Yayınları.

Thompson, B. (2004). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. American Psychological Association Pres.

Tsiplakides, L. (2018). Shadow education and social class inequalities in secondary education in Greece: The case of teaching English as a foreign language. International Journal of Sociology of Education, 7(1), 71–93.

Türkan, A., & Çeliköz, N. (2018). Ortaöğretim öğrencilerine yönelik özel ders eğilim ölçeğinin geçerlik ve güvenirlik çalışması [The validity and reliability study of the private lesson tendency scale for secondary school students]. Uluslararası Bilimsel Araştırmalar Dergisi, 3(2), 398-410.

Türkdoğan, A., & Koçak, E. (2021). Özel dersi yok saymak eğitimde eşitliği sağlamaz [Ignoring private lessons does not ensure equality in education]. Semra Kıranlı Güngör (Ed). İn Eğitim Bilimleri Alanında Uluslararası Araştırmalar III [International Studies in Educational Sciences III]. Eğitim Yayınevi.

Walkey, F., & Welch, G. (2010). Demystifying factor analysis: How it works and how to use it. Xlibris, Corp.

Yalçinkaya, B., & Eldemir, A. (2013). Bireysel çalgı dersine ilişkin tutum ölçeğinin geliştirilmesi [Development of attitude scale about ındividual instrument course]. Mustafa Kemal Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, 10(21), 29-36.

Yavuz, S. (2005), Developing a technology attitude scale for pre-service chemistry teachers, The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 4(1), 17-25.

Yıldız, A., Türkdoğan, A., & Koçak, E. (2022). Negative Effects of Private Tutoring on Stakeholders from Teachers' Perspective. E-International Journal of Educational Research, 13(1), 19-37.

Zhang, W., & Bray, M. (2018). Equalising schooling, unequalising private supplementary tutoring: access and tracking through shadow education in China. Oxford Review of Education, 44(2), 221-238.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 Mimbar Sekolah Dasar

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

View Mimbar Sekolah Dasar Stats