Teachers’ attitude towards translanguaging practice and its implication in Indonesian EFL classroom

Fransiskus Dinang Raja, Suparno Suparno, Ngadiso Ngadiso


Previous studies have shown that the majority of teachers tend to be receptive towards translanguaging practices (Khairunnisa & Lukmana, 2020; McMillan & Rivers, 2011; Nambisan, 2014; Yuvayapan, 2019). However, in Indonesian context, there are relatively few studies in this field employing a case study design to reveal more detailed information. This study was aimed at investigating teachers' attitudes towards translanguaging practices and how the practices took place. The participants were four English teachers from two private junior high schools located in East Nusa Tenggara and Central Java, Indonesia. The data were collected by using questionnaires, semi-structured interviews, and observations. The analysis reveals that all participants implemented translanguaging in several typical situations in their EFL classrooms. Despite participants' various feelings towards translanguaging, they still use translanguaging in their teaching and associated translanguaging with positive attributes. Moreover, the majority of teacher participants had positive intentions towards translanguaging in their future class. These findings shed light on a multilingual pedagogical practices and further research directions. 


EFL classroom; teachers’ attitude; translanguaging

Full Text:



Alby, S., & Léglise, I. (2017). Multilingualism and translanguaging as a resource for teaching and learning in French guiana. The Multilingual Edge of Education, 115–137. https://doi.org/10.1057/978-1-137-54856-6_6

Annamalai, E. (2018). Nation-building in a globalised world: Language choice and education in India. Decolonisation, Globalisation, 20–37. https://doi.org/10.21832/9781853598265-004

Baker, C. (2001). Foundations of bilingual education and bilingualism (3rd ed.). Multilingual Matters Ltd. https://doi.org/10.1075/lplp.21.3.11fer

Canagarajah, S. (2011a). Codemeshing in academic writing: Identifying teachable strategies of translanguaging. The Modern Language Journal, 95(3), 401–417. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.2011.01207.x

Canagarajah, S. (2011b). Translanguaging in the classroom: Emerging issues for research and pedagogy. Applied Linguistics Review, 2(2011), 1–28. https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110239331.1

Cenoz, J. (2017). Translanguaging in school contexts: International perspectives. Journal of Language, Identity and Education, 16(4), 193–198. https://doi.org/10.1080/15348458.2017.1327816

Fang, F., & Liu, Y. (2020). ‘Using all English is not always meaningful’: Stakeholders’ perspectives on the use of and attitudes towards translanguaging at a Chinese university. Lingua, 247, 102959. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lingua.2020.102959

Faridatuunnisa, I. (2020). Kebijakan dan pelaksanaan pembelajaran bahasa inggris untuk SD di Indonesia. Seminar Nasional Pendidikan, 1(1) 191–199. https://jurnal.ustjogja.ac.id/index.php/semnas2020/article/view/7510

García, O., & Wei, L. (2014). Translanguaging: Language, bilingualism and education. Palgrave Macmillan. https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137385765

Jones, B. (2017). Translanguaging in bilingual schools in Wales. Journal of Language, Identity & Education, 16(4), 199–215. https://doi.org/10.1080/15348458.2017.1328282

Khairunnisa, & Lukmana, I. (2020). Teachers’ attitudes towards translanguaging in Indonesian EFL classrooms. Jurnal Penelitian Pendidikan, 20(2), 254–266.

Krause, L. S., & Prinsloo, M. (2016). Translanguaging in a township primary school: Policy and practice. Southern African Linguistics and Applied Language Studies, 34(4), 347–357. https://doi.org/10.2989/16073614.2016.1261039

Lewis, G., Jones, B., & Baker, C. (2012). Translanguaging: Developing its conceptualisation and contextualisation. Educational Research and Evaluation, 18(7), 655–670. http://doi.org/10.1080/13803611.2012.718490

Macaro, E. (2001). Analysing student teachers’ codeswitching in foreign language classrooms: Theories and decision making. The Modern Language Journal, 85(4), 531–548. https://doi.org/10.1111/0026-7902.00124

McMillan, B. A., & Rivers, D. J. (2011). The practice of policy: Teacher attitudes toward “English only.” System, 39(2), 251–263. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2011.04.011

Miles, M. B., Huberman, A. M., & Saldaña, J. (2014). Qualitative data analysis: A methods sourcebook (3rd ed.). Sage Publications. Inc.

Nambisan, K. A. (2014). Teachers’ attitudes towards and uses of translanguaging in English language classrooms in Iowa [Unpublished master’s thesis]. Iowa State University. https://search.proquest.com/docview/1659819713?accountid=13375

Rasman. (2018). To translanguage or not to translanguage? The multilingual practice in an indonesian EFL classroom. Indonesian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 7(3), 687–694. https://doi.org/10.17509/ijal.v7i3.9819

Siegel, J. (2020). Appreciating translanguaging in student notes. ELT Journal, 74(1), 86-88. https://doi.org/10.1093/elt/ccz052

Ting, S.-H., & Jintang, L. (2020). Teacher and students’ translanguaging practices in a Malaysian preschool. International Journal of Early Years Education, 0(0), 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1080/09669760.2020.1850429

Wang, D. (2016). Translanguaging in Chinese foreign language classrooms: Students and teachers’ attitudes and practices. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 22(2), 138–149. https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050.2016.1231773

Wang, D. (2019). Researching classroom translanguaging. In D. Wang (Ed.), Multilingualism and translanguaging in Chinese language classrooms (pp. 97–106). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-02529-8

Wei, L. (2011). Moment Analysis and translanguaging space: Discursive construction of identities by multilingual Chinese youth in Britain. Journal of Pragmatics, 43(5), 1222–1235. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2010.07.035

Wei, L., & García, O. (2017). Research methods in language and education. K. A. King, Y. Lai & S. May (Eds.), Research methods in language and education, 227–240. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-02249-9

Yin, R. K. (2018). Case study research and applications: Design and methods (6th ed.). Sage Publications Ltd. https://doi.org/10.1177/109634809702100108

Yuvayapan, F. (2019). Translanguaging in EFL classrooms : Teachers ’ perceptions and practices. Journal of Language and Linguistic Studies, 15(2), 678–694.

Zein, M. S. (2017). Elementary English education in Indonesia: Policy developments, current practices, and future prospects. English Today, 33(1), 53–59. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0266078416000407

Zuniga, C. E., Henderson, K. I., & Palmer, D. K. (2017). Language policy toward equity: How bilingual teachers use policy mandates to their own ends. Language and Education, 32(1). https://doi.org/10.1080/09500782.2017.1349792

DOI: https://doi.org/10.17509/ijal.v11i3.38371


  • There are currently no refbacks.

View My Stats

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.