Cover Image

A Bibliometric Analysis of Biodiversity Education

Mustafa Derman


The importance of biodiversity is one of the most critical issues today, and intense efforts are being made to protect and maintain biodiversity. In this study, biodiversity, which is related to many disciplines, was evaluated in terms of education. A bibliometric analysis was used. The bibliometric method is widely used to reveal the relationship between scientific studies, the effect of the studies, and the effect of the researchers and journals in a particular field. Research findings showed that many articles have been published on biodiversity recently. In education, out-of-school learning activities are used more widely today. Moreover, the USA, China, and Germany are among the countries that publish more articles about biodiversity. Based on the research findings, it was determined that combining the formal education process with out-of-school activities will help students exhibit positive behavior about the environment and biodiversity. Considering the trend in recent years, studies related to climate change, ecosystem service, sustainability, and citizen science can be carried out.

Full Text:

Download PDF


Adom, D., Umachandran, K., Ziarati, P., Sawicka, B., & Sekyere, P. (2019). The Concept of Biodiversity and its Relevance to Mankind: A Short Review. Journal of Agriculture and Sustainability, 12(2), 219–231.

Aivelo, T., & Huovelin, S. (2020). Combining formal education and citizen science: a case study on students’ perceptions of learning and interest in an urban rat project. Environmental Education Research, 26(3), 324–340.

Alho, C. J. R. (2012). The importance of biodiversity to human health : An ecological Perspective. Estudos Avançados, 26(74), 151–165.

Ardoin, N. M., & Bowers, A. W. (2020). Early childhood environmental education: A systematic review of the research literature. Educational Research Review, 31(July), 100353.

Barker, S., & Elliott, P. (2000). Planning a skills-based resource for biodiversity education. Journal of Biological Education, 34(3), 123–127.

Barraza, L. (2001). Environmental Education in Mexican Schools: The Primary Level. The Journal of Environmental Education, 32(3), 31–36.

Beery, T., & Jørgensen, K. A. (2018). Children in nature: sensory engagement and the experience of biodiversity. Environmental Education Research, 24(1), 13–25.

Bermudez, G. M. A., Pérez-Mesa, R., & Ottogalli, M. E. (2022). Biodiversity Knowledge and Conceptions in Latin American : Towards an Integrative New Perspective for Education Research and Practice. International Journal of Education in Mathematics, Science, and Technology, 10(1), 175–217.

Bilali, H. El, Dambo, L., Nanema, J., Bassole, I. H. N., & Calabrese, G. (2022). Biodiversity-pastoralism nexus in West Africa. AIMS Agriculture and Food, 7(1), 73–95.

Bögeholz, S. (2006). Nature experience and its importance for environmental knowledge, values and action: recent German empirical contributions. Environmental Education Research, 12(1), 65–84.

Bogner, F. X. (2018). Environmental values (2-MEV) and appreciation of nature. Sustainability (Switzerland), 10(350), 1–10.

Bonney, R., Shirk, J. L., Phillips, T. B., Wiggins, A., Ballard, H. L., Miller-Rushing, A. J., & Parrish, J. K. (2014). Next Steps for Citizen Science. Science, 343, 1436–1437.

Bopardikar, A., Bernstein, D., & McKenney, S. (2021). Designer considerations and processes in developing school-based citizen-science curricula for environmental education. Journal of Biological Education, Latest articles, 1–26.

Börner, K., Huang, W., Linnemeier, M., Duhon, R. J., Phillips, P., Ma, N., Zoss, A. M., Guo, H., & Price, M. A. (2010). Rete-netzwerk-red: Analyzing and visualizing scholarly networks using the Network Workbench Tool. Scientometrics, 83(3), 863–876.

Braun, T., & Dierkes, P. (2017). Connecting students to nature–how intensity of nature experience and student age influence the success of outdoor education programs. Environmental Education Research, 23(7), 937–949.

Cardinale, B. J., Duffy, J. E., Gonzalez, A., Hooper, D. U., Perrings, C., Venail, P., Narwani, A., MacE, G. M., Tilman, D., Wardle, D. A., Kinzig, A. P., Daily, G. C., Loreau, M., Grace, J. B., Larigauderie, A., Srivastava, D. S., & Naeem, S. (2012). Biodiversity loss and its impact on humanity. Nature, 486(7401), 59–67.

CDB. (1992). Convention on Biological Diversity. 1–28., 24.08.2022

Chen, C. (2006). CiteSpace II: Detecting and Visualizing Emerging Trends and Transient Patterns in Scientific Literature. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 57(3), 359–377.

Collado, S., Corraliza, J. A., Staats, H., & Ruíz, M. (2015). Effect of frequency and mode of contact with nature on children’s self-reported ecological behaviors. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 41, 65–73.

Collins-Figueroa, M. (2012). Biodiversity and Education for Sustainable Development in Teacher Education Programmes of Four Jamaican Educational Institutions. Journal of Education for Sustainable Development, 6(2), 253–267.

Deng, W., Liang, Q., Li, J., & Wang, W. (2021). Science mapping: a bibliometric analysis of female entrepreneurship studies. Gender in Management, 36(1), 61–86.

Di Ciaccio, F., & Troisi, S. (2021). Monitoring marine environments with Autonomous Underwater Vehicles: A bibliometric analysis. Results in Engineering, 9(January), 100205.

Díaz, S., Fargione, J., Chapin, F. S., & Tilman, D. (2006). Biodiversity loss threatens human well-being. PLoS Biology, 4(8), 1300–1305.

Dickinson, J. L., Shirk, J., Bonter, D., Bonney, R., Crain, R. L., Martin, J., Phillips, T., & Purcell, K. (2012). The current state of citizen science as a tool for ecological research and public engagement. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 10(6), 291–297.

Donnelly, A., Crowe, O., Regan, E., Begley, S., & Caffarra, A. (2014). The role of citizen science in monitoring biodiversity in Ireland. International Journal of Biometeorology, 58(6), 1237–1249.

Dreyfus, A., Wals, A. E. J., & van Weelie, D. (1999). Biodiversity as a Postmodern Theme for Environmental Education. Canadian Journal of Environmental Education, 4, 155–176.

Fančovičová, J., & Prokop, P. (2018). Effects of hands-on activities on conservation, disgust and knowledge of woodlice. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 14(3), 721–729.

Gayford, C. (2000). Biodiversity education: A teacher’s perspective. Environmental Education Research, 6(4), 347–361.

Goodwin, H., & Swingland, I. R. (1996). Ecotourism, biodiversity and local development. Biodiversity and Conservation, 5(3), 275–276.

Gormley, K., Birdsall, S., & France, B. (2022). Same, same but different! Exploring children’s understandings of within-species variation. Journal of Biological Education, Latest articles, 1–22.

Grace, M. (2009). Developing high quality decision-making discussions about biological conservation in a normal classroom setting. International Journal of Science Education, 31(4), 551–570.

Grant, S. M. (2007). The Importance of Biodiversity in Crop Sustainability: A Look at Monoculture. Journal of Hunger & Environmental Nutrition, 12(1), 101–109.

Guilherme, E., Faria, C., & Boaventura, D. (2016). Exploring marine ecosystems with elementary school Portuguese children: inquiry-based project activities focused on ‘real-life’ contexts. Education 3-13, 44(6), 715–726.

Haghani, M., Bliemer, M. C. J., Goerlandt, F., & Li, J. (2020). The scientific literature on Coronaviruses, COVID-19 and its associated safety-related research dimensions: A scientometric analysis and scoping review. Safety Science, 129, 104806.

Hanley, N., Spash, C., & Walker, L. (1995). Problems in valuing the benefits of biodiversity protection. Environmental & Resource Economics, 5(3), 249–272.

Hardy, C. R., & Hardy, N. W. (2018). Adapting Traditional Field Activities in Natural History Education to an Emerging Paradigm in Biodiversity Informatics. American Biology Teacher, 80(7), 501–519.

Heinen, J. T. (1993). Park-People Relations in Kosi Tappu Wildlife Reserve, Nepal: A Socio-economic Analysis. Environmental Conservation, 20(1), 25–34.

Helldén, G., & Helldén, S. (1970). Students’ early experiences of biodiversity and education for a sustainable future. Nordic Studies in Science Education, 4(2), 123–131.

Hernández, C., Echeverría, C., & Nelson, C. (2021). Evolution and emerging research trends in the ecological impacts of landscape change: perspectives from a Chilean biodiversity hotspot. Landscape Ecology, 36(6), 1587–1603.

Hoover, K. S. (2021). Children in nature: exploring the relationship between childhood outdoor experience and environmental stewardship. Environmental Education Research, 27(6), 894–910.

Houlden, V., Jani, A., & Hong, A. (2021). Is biodiversity of greenspace important for human health and wellbeing? A bibliometric analysis and systematic literature review. Urban Forestry and Urban Greening, 66, 127385.

Jansson, M., Gunnarsson, A., Mårtensson, F., & Andersson, S. (2014). Children’s perspectives on vegetation establishment: Implications for school ground greening. Urban Forestry and Urban Greening, 13(1), 166–174.

Jesus-Leibovitz, L., Faria, C., Baioa, A. M., & Borges, R. (2017). Exploring marine biodiversity through inquiry with primary school students: a successful journey? Education 3-13, 45(4), 437–449.

Jose, S., Patrick, P. G., & Moseley, C. (2017). Experiential learning theory: the importance of outdoor classrooms in environmental education. International Journal of Science Education, Part B: Communication and Public Engagement, 7(3), 269–284.

Kamudu, B., Rollnick, M., & Nyamupangedengu, E. (2022). Investigating what students learnt about biodiversity following a visit to a nature reserve using Personal Meaning Maps. Journal of Biological Education, Latest articles, 1–18.

Kassas, M. (2002). Environmental education : biodiversity. The Environmentalist, 22, 345–351.

Kelemen-Finan, J., Scheuch, M., & Winter, S. (2018). Contributions from citizen science to science education: an examination of a biodiversity citizen science project with schools in Central Europe. International Journal of Science Education, 40(17), 2078–2098.

Kim, M. (2019). Fostering Environmental Sensitivity by Observing Everyday Environments. Journal of Geography, 118(4), 157–168.

Kiss, A. (2004). Is community-based ecotourism a good use of biodiversity conservation funds? Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 19(5), 232–237.

Knapp, S. (2019). People and plants: The unbreakable bond. Plants People Planet, 1(1), 20–26.

Kossack, A., & Bogner, F. X. (2012). How does a one-day environmental education programme support individual connectedness with nature? Journal of Biological Education, 46(3), 180–187.

Krombaß, A., & Harms, U. (2008). Acquiring knowledge about biodiversity in a museum - Are worksheets effective? Journal of Biological Education, 42(4), 157–163.

Lengieza, M. L., Hunt, C. A., & Swim, J. K. (2022). Ecotourism, eudaimonia, and sustainability insights. Journal of Ecotourism, Latest articles, 1–16.

Lindemann-Matthies, P., Constantinou, C., Junge, X., Köhler, K., Mayer, J., Nagel, U., Raper, G., Schüle, D., & Kadji-Beltran, C. (2009). The integration of biodiversity education in the initial education of primary school teachers: four comparative case studies from Europe. Environmental Education Research, 15(1), 17–37.

Lovejoy, T. E. (2008). Climate change and biodiversity. Review of Science and Technology, 27(2), 331–338.

Luvison Araújo, L. A., & Dos Santos Alitto, R. A. (2021). Teaching native biodiversity: an exploratory study with Brazilian teachers. Journal of Biological Education, Latest articles, 1–11.

Ma, J., & Nickerson, J. V. (2006). Hands-on, simulated, and remote laboratories: A comparative literature review. ACM Computing Surveys, 38(3), 1–24.

Mace, G. M., Norris, K., & Fitter, A. H. (2012). Biodiversity and ecosystem services: A multilayered relationship. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 27(1), 19–26.

Menzel, S., & Bögeholz, S. (2009). The loss of biodiversity as a challenge for sustainable development: How do pupils in Chile and Germany perceive resource dilemmas? Research in Science Education, 39(4), 429–447.

Merenlender, A. M., Crall, A. W., Drill, S., Prysby, M., & Ballard, H. (2016). Evaluating environmental education, citizen science, and stewardship through naturalist programs. Conservation Biology, 30(6), 1255–1265.

Midgley, G. F., Hannah, L., Millar, D., Rutherford, M. C., & Powrie, L. W. (2002). Assessing the vulnerability of species richness to anthropogenic climate change in a biodiversity hotspot. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 11(6), 445–451.

Montgomery, C. A. (2002). Ranking the benefits of biodiversity: An exploration of relative values. Journal of Environmental Management, 64(3), 313–326.

Moosa, V., & Shareefa, M. (2020). Science mapping the most-cited publications on workplace learning. Journal of Workplace Learning, 32(4), 259–272.

Navarro-Perez, M., & Tidball, K. G. (2012). Challenges of Biodiversity Education : A Review of Education Strategies for Biodiversity Education. International Electronic Journal of Environmental Education, 2(1), 12–30.

Nyaupane, G. P., & Poudel, S. (2011). Linkages among biodiversity, livelihood, and tourism. Annals of Tourism Research, 38(4), 1344–1366.

Peter, M., Diekötter, T., & Kremer, K. (2019). Participant outcomes of biodiversity citizen science projects: A systematic literature review. Sustainability, 11(2780), 1–18.

Pimentel, D., Wilson, C., McCullum, C., Huang, R., Dwen, P., Flack, J., Tran, Q., Saltman, T., & Cliff, B. (1997). Economic and Environmental Benefits of Biodiversity. BioScience, 47(11), 747–757.

Prokop, P., Prokop, M., & Tunnicliffe, S. D. (2007). Is biology boring? Student attitudes toward biology. Journal of Biological Education, 42(1), 36–39.

Randler, C., & Hulde, M. (2007). Hands-on versus teacher-centred experiments in soil ecology. International Journal of Phytoremediation, 25(3), 329–338.

Redlin, M., & Gries, T. (2021). Anthropogenic climate change: the impact of the global carbon budget. Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 146(1–2), 713–721.

Rodríguez-Loinaz, G., Ametzaga-Arregi, I., & Palacios-Agundez, I. (2022). ICT tools and citizen science: a pathway to promote science learning and Education for Sustainable Development in schools. Journal of Biological Education, Latest art, 1–17.

Root, T. L., Price, J. T., Hall, K. R., Schneider, S. H., Rosenzweig, C., & Pounds, J. A. (2003). Fingerprints of global warming on wild animals and plants. Nature, 421(6918), 57-60.

Samperiz, A., & Herrero, J. (2018). Evaluation of a summer camp environmental education program in Spain. Applied Environmental Education and Communication, 17(1), 79–90.

Schneiderhan-Opel, J., & Bogner, F. X. (2020). FutureForest: Promoting Biodiversity Literacy by Implementing Citizen Science in the Classroom. American Biology Teacher, 82(4), 234–240.

Schultz, J. G. W., & Joordens, S. (2014). The effect of visitor motivation on the success of environmental education at the Toronto Zoo. Environmental Education Research, 20(6), 753–775.

Slingsby, D. (2009). Editorial: Charles Darwin, Biological Education and diversity: Past present and future. Journal of Biological Education, 43(3), 99–100.

Socientize Project. (2013). Green paper on Citizen Science. Citizen Science for Europe: Towards a society of empowered citizens and enhanced research. European Commission, 1–54., 22.08.2022

Stronza, A. L., Hunt, C. A., & Fitzgerald, L. A. (2022). Ecotourism for conservation? Routledge Handbook of Ecotourism, 372–397.

Stronza, A., & Pêgas, F. (2008). Ecotourism and conservation: Two cases from Brazil and Peru. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 13(4), 263–279.

Sukhontapatipak, C., & Srikosamatara, S. (2012). The role of field exercises in ecological learning and values education: Action research on the use of campus wetlands. Journal of Biological Education, 46(1), 36–44.

Tuparevska, E. (2022). Learning in nature: an amplified human rights-based framework. Educational Philosophy and Theory, Latest articles, 1–11.

Unger, S., Rollins, M., Tietz, A., & Dumais, H. (2021). iNaturalist as an engaging tool for identifying organisms in outdoor activities. Journal of Biological Education, 55(5), 537–547.

van Eck, N. J., & Waltman, L. (2010). Software survey: VOSviewer, a computer program for bibliometric mapping. Scientometrics, 84(2), 523–538.

Van Oudenhoven, A. P. E., & De Groot, R. S. (2012). Evidence and people’s perceptions of the importance of biodiversity and integrated land use management for ecosystem services and local livelihoods. International Journal of Biodiversity Science, Ecosystem Services and Management, 8(3), 187–189.

van Weelie, D., & Wals, A. (2002). Making biodiversity meaningful through environmental education. International Journal of Science Education, 24(11), 1143–1156.

Wheater, R. (1995). World Zoo Conservation Strategy: a blueprint for zoo development. Biodiversity and Conservation, 4(6), 544–552.

Whitehead, M. (1995). Saying it with genes, species and habitats: biodiversity education and the role of zoos. Biodiversity and Conservation, 4(6), 664–670.

Wilson, C., & Tisdell, C. (2003). Conservation and economic benefits of wildlife-based marine tourism: Sea turtles and whales as case studies. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 8(1), 49–58.

Wilson, J. B. (2013). Biodiversity theory applied to the real world of ecological restoration. Applied Vegetation Science, 16(1), 5–7.

Worm, B., & Duffy, J. E. (2003). Biodiversity, productivity and stability in real food webs. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 18(12), 628–632.

Wyner, Y., & Doherty, J. H. (2021). Seeing the trees: what urban middle school students notice about the street trees that surround them. Journal of Biological Education, 55(2), 155–177.

Xu, J., Xiao, P., Li, T., & Wang, Z. (2022). Research Progress on endangered plants : a bibliometric analysis. Biodiversity and Conservation, 31, 1125–1147.

Yan, H., & Liu, G. (2021). Fire ’ s Effects on Grassland Restoration and Biodiversity Conservation. Sustainability, 13(12016), 1–15.

Yen, C. F., Yao, T. W., & Mintzes, J. J. (2007). Taiwanese students’ alternative conceptions of animal biodiversity. International Journal of Science Education, 29(4), 535-553.

Yu, S., Cui, B., Xie, C., Man, Y., & Fu, J. (2022). Bibliometric Review of Biodiversity Offsetting During 1992–2019. Chinese Geographical Science, 32(2), 189–203.

Zannini, P., Frascaroli, F., Nascimbene, J., Persico, A., Halley, J. M., Stara, K., Midolo, G., & Chiarucci, A. (2021). Sacred natural sites and biodiversity conservation: a systematic review. Biodiversity and Conservation, 30(13), 3747–3762.

Zhang, Z., Stevenson, K. T., & Martin, K. L. (2022). Use of nature-based schoolyards predicts students’ perceptions of schoolyards as places to support learning, play, and mental health. Environmental Education Research, 28(9), 1271–1282.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2023 Mustafa Derman

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Journal of Science Learning is published by Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia
in collaboration with the Indonesian Society of Science Educators
Jl. Dr. Setiabudhi 229 Bandung 40154, West Java, Indonesia
Email: js