Cover Image

Self-regulated Learning and Digital Literacy: Relationship with Conceptual Understanding of Excretory System

Rusdi Rusdi, Rizhal Hendi Ristanto, Gabriellia Oktaviani Prabowo, Edi Sarwono


Biology learning in the 21st century makes students have to understand concepts, including in excretory system learning. Self-regulated learning is the way students manage learning on their own, with digital literacy skills which should be maintained as students must control their use of technology and information in learning. This research aimed to analyze the relationship between self-regulated learning with the conceptual understanding of the excretory system, digital literacy with the conceptual understanding of the excretory system, then also the relationship between self-regulated learning and digital literacy as a whole with the conceptual understanding of the excretory system in a high school with a post-pandemic learning situation. This research was held for two months duration from March until April 2022 in SMAN 6 Jakarta, involving 94 students of class XI Science as samples. A descriptive correlational study was chosen as the method, while questionnaires and tests are used as instruments. The hypothesis test shows a multiple linear regression model in Ŷ=-12.495+0.345X1+0.680X2 with the model significance of 0.000 and 0.062 as relationship linearity, then concludes that there is a positive relationship which is significant and linear between self-regulated learning and digital literacy simultaneously with excretory system conceptual understanding. 

Full Text:

Download PDF


Al-Rahmi, W., Othman, M. S., & Yusuf, L. M. (2015). The role of social media for collaborative learning to improve academic performance of students and researchers in Malaysian higher education. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 16(4).

Anderson, L., & Krathwohl, D. (2001). A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching, and Assessing: A Revision of Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. New York: Addison Wesley Longman, Inc.

Anthonysamy, L., Koo, A. C., & Hew, S. H. (2020). Self-regulated learning strategies in higher education: Fostering digital literacy for sustainable lifelong learning. Education and Information Technologies, 25, 2393-2414.

Antonelli, J., Jones, S., Burridge, A., & Hawkins, J. (2020). Understanding the Self-Regulated Learning Characteristics of First-Generation College Students. Journal of College Student Development 61(1), 67-83.

Antunano, M., Resendiz, J., Cruz-Perez, M., Paredes-Garcia, & Diaz, J. (2022). Teachers' Perception in Selecting Virtual Learning Platforms: A Case of Mexican Higher Education during the COVID-19 Crisis. Sustainability, 14(1) , 195-200.

Arikunto, S. (2009). Dasar-dasar Evaluasi Pendidikan (edisi revisi). [Fundamentals of Educational Evaluation (revised edition)].

Atmojo, S., Muhtarom, T., & Lukitoaji, B. (2020). The Level of Self-Regulated Learning and Self-Awareness in Science Learning in the COVID-19 Pandemic Era. Indonesian Science Education Journal, 512-520.

Audrin, C., & Audrin, B. (2022). Key factors in digital literacy in learning and education: a systematic literature review using text mining. Education and Information Technologies, 1-15.

Blayone, T. J., Mykhailenko, O., vanOostveen, R., Grebeshkov, O., Hrebeshkova, O., & Vostryakov, O. (2018). Surveying digital competencies of university students and professors in Ukraine for fully online collaborative learning. Technology, Pedagogy and Education, 27(3), 279-296.

Braten, I., Britt, M., Stromso, H., & Rouet, J. (2011). The role of epistemic beliefs in the comprehension of multiple expository texts. Educational Psychologist, 46(1), 48-70.

Bulic, M., & Blazenvic, I. (2020). The Impact of Online Learning on Student Motivation in Science and Biology Classes. Journal of Elementary Education, 13(1), 73-87.

Carretero, S., Vuorikari, R., & Punie, Y. (2017). DigComp 2.1: The Digital Competence Framework for Citizens with eight proficiency levels and examples. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.

Cho, M. H., & Shen, D. (2013). Self-regulation in online learning. Distance education, 34(3), 290-301.

Choi, J. (2012). Effects of mastery of auditory match-to-sample instruction on echoics, emergence of advanced listener literacy, and speaker as own listener cusps by elementary school students with ASD and ADHD. Columbia University.

Cleary, T. (2018). The Self-Regulated Learning Guide : Teaching Students to Think in the Language of Strategies. Oxfordshire: Taylor & Francis.

Cleary, T., & Platten, P. (2013). Examining the Correspondence between Self-Regulated Learning and Academic Achievement: A Case Study. Education Research International, 1-19.

DiBenedetto, M. (2018). Connecting Self-regulated Learning and Performance with Instruction Across High School Content Areas. Switzerland: Springer.

Dirkx, K., Camp, G., Kester, L., & Kirschner, P. (2019). Do secondary school students make use of effective study strategies when they study on their own. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 33(5) , 952-957.

Efklides, A., Schwartz, B., & Brown, V. (2018). Motivation and affect in self-regulated learning: Does metacognition play a role? In D. Schunk, & J. Greene, Handbook of self-regulation of learning and performance (pp. 64-82). New York: Routledge/Taylor & Francis.

Emerson, R. (2017). Likert Scales. Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness, 111(5), 488.

Engzell, P., Frey, A., & Verhagen, M. (2021). Learning loss due to school closures during the COVID-19 pandemic. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 118 (17), 1-7.

Fullan, M., Quinn, J., & McEachen, J. (2017). Deep Learning: Engage the World, Change the World. New York: SAGE Publishing.

Giovanni, F., & Komariah, N. (2019). The Relationship Between Digital Literacy and Student Achievement at SMA Negeri 6 Bogor City. Libraria, 7(1), 147-162.

Greene, J., Plumley, R., C., U., Bernacki, M., Gates, K., Hogan, K., . . . Panter, A. (2019). Modeling temporal self-regulatory processing in a higher education biology course. Learning and Instruction, 72, 1-8.

Greene, J., Yu, S., & Dana, C. (2014). Measuring critical components of digital literacy and their relationships with learning. Computers & Education, 55-69.

Gunel, M., Hand, B., & McDermott, M. A. (2009). Writing for different audiences: Effects on high-school students' conceptual understanding of biology. Learning and instruction, 19(4), 354-367.

Hafiza, N., Rahayu, H., & Kahar, A. (2022). The Relationship Between Digital Literacy and Learning Outcomes in Biology Learning for Students. Journal of Science Education Research, 8(1), 171-176.

Hanif, S., Wijaya, A., & Winarno, N. (2019). Enhancing Students' Creativity through STEM Project-Based Learning. Journal of Science Learning, 2(2) , 50-57.

Hanum, L. (2017). Learning Planning. Aceh: Syiah Kuala University Press.

Hermawanto, Kusairi, S., & Wartono. (2013). Effect of Blended Learning on Mastery of Physical Reasoning Concepts for Class X Students. Indonesian Journal of Physics Education, 9(1) , 67-76.

Hidayat, S. (2021). The Relationship of Self-Regulated Learning with Biology Learning Outcomes for Class XI MIPA Riyadlul Ulum Integrated Senior High School. Tasikmalaya: Siliwangi University.

Hillmayr, D., Ziernwald, L., Reinhold, F., Hofer, S., & Reiss, K. (2020). The potential of digital tools to enhance mathematics and science learning in secondary schools: A context-specific meta-analysis. Computers & Education, 153 , 1-25.

Jansen, R., Leeuwen, A., Janssen, J., Conijn, R., & Kester, L. (2020). Supporting learners' self-regulated learning in Massive Open Online Courses. Computers & Education, 146 , 1-17.

Jensen, J., & Mark, M. (2014). Teaching to the Test or Testing to Teach: Exams Requiring Higher Order Thinking Skills Encourage Greater Conceptual Understanding. Educational Psychology Review, 26(2), 307-329.

Jin, K., Reichert, F., Cagasan, L., La Torre, J., & Law, N. (2020). Measuring digital literacy across three age cohorts: Exploring the dimensionality and performance differences. Computers & Education , 1-55.

Kaminske, A. N., Kuepper-Tetzel, C. E., Nebel, C. L., Sumeracki, M. A., & Ryan, S. P. (2020). Transfer: a review for biology and the life sciences. CBE—Life Sciences Education, 19(3), es9.

Kitsantas, A., & Dabbagh, N. (2011). The role of Web 2.0 technologies in self-regulated learning. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 126, 99-106.

Konicek-Moran, R., & Keeley, P. (2015). Teaching for conceptual understanding in science. Arlington: NSTA Press, National Science Teachers Association.

Lee, J., Moon, J., & Cho, B. (2015). The Mediating Role of Self-Regulation Between Digital Literacy and Learning Outcomes in the Digital Textbook for Middle School English. Educational Technology International, 16(1), 58-83.

Limniou, M., Varga-Atkins, T., Hands, C., & Elshamaa, M. (2021). Learning, student digital capabilities and academic performance over the COVID-19 pandemic. Education Sciences, 11(7) , 31-36.

Matraeva, A., Rybakova, M., Vinichenko, M., Oseev, A., & Ljapunova, N. (2020). Development of Creativity of Students in Higher Educational Institutions: Assessment of Students and Experts. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 8(1) , 8-16.

Meyer, K. (2010). A comparison of Web 2.0 tools in a doctoral course. Internet and Higher Education, 13(4), 226-232.

Ministry of Education and Culture. (2021, December 23). Prototype Curriculum as an Option to Support Learning Recovery. Ministry of Education, Culture, Research and Technology:

Muthupoltotage, U. P, & Gardner, L. (2018). Analysing the relationships between digital literacy and self-regulated learning of undergraduates—a preliminary investigation. In Advances in information systems development: methods, tools and management (pp. 1-16). Springer International Publishing.

Neuman, W. R. (2016). The digital difference: Media technology and the theory of communication effects. Harvard University Press.

Ng, M., & Abdullah, L. (2010). Self-Regulated Learning: Theory and Application. Penang: USM Publisher.

Nicholas, D., Huntington, P., Jamali, H., Rowlands, I., & Maggie, F. (2009). Student digital information-seeking behavior in context. Journal of Documentation, 65(1), 106-132.

Nuckles, M., Roelle, J., Glogger-Frey, I., Waldeyer, J., & Renkl, A. (2020). The Self-Regulation-View in Writing-to-Learn : Using Journal Writing to Optimize Cognitive Load. Educational Psychology Review, 32 , 1089-1126.

Nygaard, L. C., Cook, A. E., & Namy, L. L. (2009). Sound to meaning correspondences facilitate word learning. Cognition, 112(1), 181-186.

Olga, M. (2018). Features of Creativity and Innovation Development in Students at Secondary and High School. International Journal of Cognitive Research in Science, Engineering and Education, 6(2) , 11-20.

O'Neill, G., & Murphy, F. (2010). Assessment : Guide to Taxonomies of Learning. Dublin: UCD Teaching and Learning.

Owens, C., Troy, S., Angela, B., & Smith-Walters, C. (2017). Student Motivation from and Resistance to Active Learning Rooted in Essential Science Practices. Research in Science Education, 1-25.

Perdana, I., & Misnawati. (2021). Learning Evaluation. Bogor: GUEPEDIA.

Piantola, M., Moreno, A., Matielo, H., Taschner, N., Cavalcante, R., Khan, S., & Ferreira, R. (2018). Adopt a Bacterium - an active and collaborative learning experience in microbiology based on social media. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology, 49(4), 1-10.

Pintrich, P., Smith, D., Garcia, T., & McKeachie, W. (1991). A manual for the use of the motivated strategies for learning questionnaire (MSLQ).

Prayitno. (2009). Basic Theory and Practice of Education. Jakarta: Grasindo.

Punch, K. (2003). Survey Research : The Basics. London: SAGE Publications.

Puspitasari, R., Miarsyah, M., & Rusdi, R. (2020). Flash Based Interactive Multimedia Development to Increasing Learning Outcomes of Participants in High School in Materials Excretory System. International Journal for Educational and Vocational Studies, 2(4) , 1-15.

Rahayu, S., Dewahrani, Y. R., Nurkhofiyya, A., & Ristanto, R. H. (2021, April). Scaffolding self-regulated learning through Android-based mobile media on hormone system. In AIP Conference Proceedings (Vol. 2331, No. 1, p. 050004). AIP Publishing LLC.

Reinke, N., Kynn, M., & Parkinson, A. (2019). Conceptual understanding of osmosis and diffusion by Australian first-year biology students. International Journal of Innovation in Science and Mathematics Education, 27(9), 17-33.

Rindah, M. A. K., Dwiastuti, S., & Rinanto, Y. (2019). Excretory system learning in senior high school: comparative analysis of students’ problem solving skills. Biosfer: Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi, 12(2), 249-257.

Ristanto, R., Rahayu, S., & Mutmainah, S. (2021). Conceptual Understanding of Excretory System: Implementing cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition Based on Scientific Approach. Participatory Educational Research (PER), 8(2), 28-47.

Rozgonjuk, D., Saat, K., & Taht, K. (2018). Problematic smartphone use, deep and surface approaches to learning, and social media use in lectures. Journal of Environmental Public Health, 15 , 92-100.

Sa, M., Santos, A., Serpa, S., & Ferreira, C. (2021). Digital Literacy in Digital Society 5.0 : Some Challenges. Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies. 10(1), 1-9.

Sartono, N., Komala, R., & Dumayanti, H. (2016). Pengaruh Penerapan Model Reciprocal teaching Terintegrasi Mind Mapping terhadap Pemahaman Konsep Siswa pada Materi Filum Arthropoda. Biosfer : Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi, 9(1), 20-27.

Sebesta, A., & Speth, E. (2017). How Should I Study for the Exam? Self-Regulated Learning Strategies and Achievement in Introductory Biology. CBE-Life Science Education, 16(2), 1-12.

Shroff, R. H., Ting, F. S. T., & Lam, W. H. (2019). Development and validation of an instrument to measure students’ perceptions of technology-enabled active learning. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 35(4)

Simarmata, J., Sihotang, J., Karim, A., Purba, R., Hazriani, Koibur, M., & Jamaludin. (2021). Digital Literacy. Medan: Our Writing Foundation.

Simorangkir, A., & Napitupulu, M. (2020). Analysis of Student Learning Difficulties in Human Excretory System Material. Journal of Pelita Pendidikan, 8(1).

Sinatra, G. M., & Taasoobshirazi, G. (2017). The self-regulation of learning and conceptual change in science: Research, theory, and educational applications. In Handbook of self-regulation of learning and performance (pp. 153-165). New York: Routledge Taylor and Francis.

Stanton, J., Neider, X., Gallegos, I., & Clark, N. (2015). Dierences in metacognitive regulation in introductory biology students: when prompts are not enough. CBE Life Science Education, 14

Suryanda, A., Sartono, N., & Sa'diyah, H. (2019). Developing smartphone-based laboratory manual as a learning media. Journal of Physics: Conference Series (p. 1402). Bristol: IOP Publishing.

Susanto, R., Rachmadtullah, R., & Rachbini, W. (2020). Technological and pedagogical models: Analysis of factors and measurement of learning outcomes in education. Journal of Ethnic and Cultural Studies, 7(2), 1-14.

Tang, C., & Chaw, L. (2016). Digital Literacy: A Prerequisite for Effective Learning in a Blended Learning Environment?. Electronic Journal of e-Learning, 14(1), 54-65.

Ting, Y. (2015). Tapping into students' digital literacy and designing negotiated learning to promote learner autonomy. The Internet and Higher Education, 26, 25-32.

van Alten, D. C., Phielix, C., Janssen, J., & Kester, L. (2020). Self-regulated learning sup port in flipped learning videos enhances learning outcomes. Computers & Education, 158, 104000.

Wahyuni, A., & Suhendar. (2018). Achievement and response of students at favorite junior high schools in Sukabumi on trends in international mathematics and science study (timss) questions. Biosphere: Journal of Biological Education, 11(2) , 126-133.

Wardyaningrum, A., & Suyanto, S. (2019). Improving Students' Conceptual Understanding of Biology through Quipper School. Journal of Physics: Conference Series 1233, 1-8.

Weinstein, C., Palmer, D., & Acee, T. (2016). Learning and Study Strategies Inventory (LASSI) User's Manual, Third Edition. Texas: H&H Publishing Company, Inc.

Wong, J., Baars, M., Davis, D., Der Zee, T., Houben, G., & Paas, F. (2019). Supporting Self Regulated Learning in Online Learning Environments and MOOCs: A Systematic Review. International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 35(4) , 356-373.

Yoon, S., Sao, G., & Park, M. (2017). Teaching and Learning Aboit Complex Systems in K-12 Science Education: A Review of Empirical Studies 1995-2015. Review of Educational Research , 1-41.

Yu, Z. (2022). Sustaining Student Roles, Digital Literacy, Learning Achievements, and Motivation in Online Learning Environments during the COVID-19 Pandemic. Sustainability, 14(8), 43-48.

Zimmerman, B. J. (2013). Theories of self-regulated learning and academic achievement: An overview and analysis. Self-regulated learning and academic achievement, 1-36.

Zimmerman, B., & Martinez-Pons, M. (1986). Development of a structured interview for assessing student use of self-regulated learning strategies. American Educational Research Journal, 23(4), 614-628.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2023 Rusdi, Rizhal Hendi Ristanto, Gabriellia Oktaviani Prabowo, Edi Sarwono

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Journal of Science Learning is published by Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia
in collaboration with the Indonesian Society of Science Educators
Jl. Dr. Setiabudhi 229 Bandung 40154, West Java, Indonesia
Email: js