Nurul Qistina Binti Abu Bakar, Muhammad Faizal Bin A. Ghani


Abstract This research is to study the moral leadership among heads of department at selected private institution in Klang Valley. The first objectives of this study are to determine the level of effectiveness of moral leadership; the second objective is to identify the domain attribute of moral leadership among heads of department at selected private institutions in Klang Valley. To answer the research objectives, questionnaires were distributed to 260 academic and administrative staff at two selected private institutions in Klang Valley.  The data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS) version 21. The descriptive statistical methods, such as percentage, mean and standard deviation, were used to identify the effectiveness and to find the dominant attributes of moral leadership among heads of department. The findings showed that the effectiveness and the dominant attribute of moral leadership among heads of department are high level for trustworthiness and communication dominants with the mean for both dominants are more than 3.50, while for criticism and dissent, fairness, employee’s development, empowerment and employee’s job performance in average level when the mean is below than 3.00. This research implication indicates that, it is importance for heads of department to practice and implemented moral leadership in their leadership styles to achieve the goals of the institutions.

Keywords— Moral Leadership, Head of Department, Private Institutions

Full Text:



Alvesson, M. and Sveningsson, S. (2003). The great disappearing act: difficulties in doing ‘leadership’. Leadership Quarterly, 14, pp. 359–381.

Nucci, L. P. (2015). Education in the moral domain. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Judge, T. & Piccolo, R. (2004).Transformational and Transactional Leadership: A Meta-Analytic Test of Their Relative Validity, Journal of Applied Psychology, 5, 755-768.

Allio R. J., (2012). "Leaders and leadership – many theories, but what advice is reliable?". Strategy & Leadership, Vol. 41 Issue: 1, pp.4-14, doi: 10.1108/10878571311290016.

Avery, G.C. (2004). Understanding Leadership: Paradigms and Cases. London: Sage.

Northouse, G. (2007). Leadership theory and practice. (3rd ed.). Thousand Oak, London, New Delhi: Sage Publications, Inc.

Yukl, G. A. (2002). Leadership in organizations (5th ed.). Delhi: Pearson Education.

Suraiya, I. (2011). Model Kepemimpinan Etika Berlandas Sirah Nabi Muhammad Saw Jurnal Hadhari, 3(2), 23 – 44.

Noriati A. Rashid et. al. (2010). Asas Kepimpinan dan Perkembangan Profesional Guru. Selangor: Oxford Fajar.

Blaikie, N. (2000), Designing Social Research, 1st ed, Polity Press, Cambridge.

Babbie, E. R. (2002). The basics of social research (2nd ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning.

Ku Samsu, Ku Hasnita. (2007). Patriotisme di Kalangan Generasi Muda Malaysia: Kajian Kes Ke Atas Mahasiswa Bukan Melayu di Institusi Pengajian Tinggi. Universiti Malaya.

Ranjit Kumar (2014). Research Methodology (4th Ed.). London: SAGE Pulication Ltd.

Tuckman, Bruce W. (1999). Conducting educational research (5th ed.). Orlando, FL: Harcourt Brace & Company.

Sekaran, U. and Bougie, R. (2013). Research Methods for Business: A Skill-Building Approach. 6th Edition, Wiley, New York.

Guarte, J. M. & Barrios, E.B. (2006). Estimation under purposive sampling. Communications in Statistics – Simulation and Computation, 35(2), 277 – 284.

Kalshoven, K. (2010). Ethical leadership: through the eyes of employees. Amsterdam Business School Research Institute (ABS-RI), FMG: Psychology Research Institute

Northouse, G. (2015). Introduction to leadership: concept and practice. (3rd ed.). Western Michigan University, Sage Publications, Inc.

Barrajon, P. L. C. (2013). Religion and leadership. Retrieved from

Brown, M. E., Trevin˜o, L. K., & Harrison, D. A. (2005). Ethical leadership: A social learning perspective for construct development and testing. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 97(2), 117-134.

De Hoogh, A. H. B., & Den Hartog, D. N. (2008). Ethical and despotic leadership, relationships with leader’s social responsibility, top management team effectiveness and subordinates’ optimism: A multi-method study. The Leadership Quarterly, 19, 297-311.

Goleman, D. (2000). LeadershipThat Gets Results. Harvard Business Review, 78(2), 78-90.

Yukl, G.A. (1981). Leadership in Organizations. NJ : Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs.

Gibson, J.W., & R.M. Hodgetts. (1991). Organizational communication – A managerial perspective. 2nd Edition. New York: HarperCollins Publishers.

Robbins, S. (1993). Organisational behaviour: Concepts, controversies and applications. 6th ed. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Fullan, M. (2001). Leading in a culture of change. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Thill J. V. & Bovee C.L.(2006). Excellence in business communication. 7th Edition. NJ, USA : Prentice Hall Press Upper Saddle River.

Yukl, G.A. (2010). Leadership in Organizations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Prentice Hall.

Berreth, D., & Berman, S. (2007). The moral dimensions of schools. Educational Leadership, 54(8), 24-27.

Cropanzano, R. & Mitchell, M.S. (2005). Social exchange theory: An interdisciplinary review. Journal of Management, 31(6), 874-900.

Rosen, C.C., Chang, C.-H., Johnson, R.E. & Levy, P.E. (2009). Perceptions of the organizational context and psychological contract breach: assessing competing perspectives. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 108(2), 202-17.

Shore, L.M., Tetrick, L.E., Taylor, M.S., Coyle Shapiro, J.A.-M., Liden, R.C., Parks, J.M., Morrison, E.W., Porter, L.FW., Robinson, S.L., Roehling, M.V., Rousseau, D.M., Shalk, R., Tsui, A.S.&Van Dyne, L. (2004). The employee-organization relationship: A timely concept in a period of transition. In Martocchio, J. (Ed.), Research in personnel and human resources management (pp. 291-370). Oxford : Elsevier.

Tekleab, A.G., Takeuchi, R. & Taylor, M.S. (2005). Extending the chain of relationships among organizational justice, social exchange, and employee reactions: The role of contract violations. Academy of Management Journal, 48(1), 146-57.

Beardwell, I., Holden, L. & Claydon, T. (2004). Human resource management: A contemporary approach. Harlow: Prentice Hall.

Halbesleben, J. (2010). A meta-analysis of work engagement: relationships with burnout, demands, resources and consequence. In Bakker, A.B. & Leiter, M.P. (Eds), Work engagement: A handbook of essential theory and research. New York : Psychology Press.

May, D.R., Gilson, R.L. & Harter, L.M. (2004). The psychological conditions of meaningfulness, safety and availability and the engagement of the human spirit at work. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 77(1), 11-37.

Pearce, C.L. & Sims, H.P. Jr.(2002). Vertical versus shared leadership as predictors of the effectiveness of change management teams: an examination of aversive, directive, transactional, transformational, and empowering leader behaviors. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, 6(2), 172-97.

Mathieu, J.E., Gilson, L.L. & Ruddy, T.M. (2006). Empowerment and team effectiveness: An empirical test of an integrated model. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91(1), 97-108.

Herbert, Donald, John, & Lee (2000). Personnel/Human resource management, 4th ed. New Delhi :Universal Book Stall.

Afshan, S., Sobia, I., Kamran, A. & Nasir, M. (2012). Impact of training on employee performance: A study of telecommunication sector in Pakistan. Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business, 4(6).


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2017 Educational Administration Review

Educational Administration Review is issued by Educational Administration Program, School of Post Graduate, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia
Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.


counter View My Stats